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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 General
Present-days self compacting concrete can be classified as an advanced concrete of construction purpose. As the name suggests, it has no need of vibration to achieve full compaction. This will gives a many advantages and benefits over the conventional concrete. This included improves the quality of concrete and reduced on-site repairs, and gives a faster construction time, lesser the total costs, facilitation of introduction of automation into construction. An important improvement of health and safety also achieved through elimination of handling of vibrators and noise pollution of environment on and around site. The composition of Self-compacting concrete mixes including substantial proportions of fine-grained in-organic materials and those gives a possibilities of the utilization of mineral admixtures, which are the currently waste products with no practical applications and those are costly dispose of (St. John, 1998).
2.2 Previous Research work on Self-Compacting Concrete
Self-compacting concrete extends the possibility of use of various mineral by-products in its manufacturing and with the densification of the matrix, mechanical behaviour, as measured by compressive, tensile and shear strengths are increased. On the other hand, the use of Super Plasticizers or high range of reducers, improves the stiffening, unwanted air entrainment, and flowing ability of the concrete. Practically, all type of structural constructions are possible with this concrete. The use of SCC not only shortens the construction period but also ensures the quality and durability of concrete. This non vibrated concrete allows faster placement and less finishing time, leading to improved productivity.
In the following, a summary of the articles and papers found in the literature review can be divided into four parts, namely, Admixtures, Development of Self-compacting concrete (SCC), Glass Fibre Self-compacting concrete (SCC), and Durability Studies.

2.3 Admixtures
2.3.1 M Ouchi, Hajime Okamura (1997)
The above authors are reported the effect of Super Plasticizers SP on the flowability and viscosity of Self Compacting Concrete. From the results obtained from the experimental investigations, they have proposed an index for the effect of Super Plasticizer on the flowability and the viscosity for obtaining self compactability. This index is very useful for calculating the quantity of the Super Plasticizer for proper viscosity and flowability of SCC by one set of results.
2.3.2 Gao Peiwei., et al, (2000)
The traditional concrete, which is made up of three ingredients cement, aggregates and water, these are used for a long time. In recent years, the High Performance Concrete (HPC) , which is the new generation of concrete, it became a popular in the concrete construction field, using of the mineral admixtures, chemical admixtures and Viscosity Modifying Agents (VMA), are need apart from cement, aggregates and water. The aim of the present day concrete is to deduction of cement in the HPC. The reasons for the deduction of cement. The first reason is to conserve precious natural resources, the second thing will be to reduce the cost and energy of skill workers and the final reason is a long-term life span(Durability).
2.3.3 Raghu Prasad P.S. et al. (2004)
According these authors both initial and final setting times are getting delayed because of using of the admixtures. This is due to the slow pozzolanic reaction caused by the addition of some admixtures. they report that this type of delayed setting sometimes beneficial during the concreting in hot weather. There will be considerable strength development for blended cements and concretes for longer periods beyond 28 days. This results in the reduction of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete.
2.3.4 Lachemi M, Hossain K.M.A (2004)
The usage of Viscosity Modifying Agents (VMA) has been proved to be very effective in stabilizing rheology of the Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). The suitability of four types of polysaccharide-based Viscosity Modifying Admixtures in development of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixes has been examined. The studies on the new types of VMA are encouraging in the development of satisfactory SCC mixes with fresh and hardened properties which are comparable to or even better than those made with commercially available VMA and Welan gum. The suggested new Type of VMA with 0.05% of dosage satisfies the fresh and hardened properties of requirements of SCC resulting in 7% less VMA dosage than the commercial VMA resulting in cost-effective SCC mixes.
2.3.5 A. Borsoi, M. Collepardi, S. Collepardi, E.N. Croce, Passuelo (2006)
For the purpose of this work is to study the role of VMA in the non-availability of the desired volume range 170-200 litres/m3 of powder material (maximum size = 75µm) to produce reliable SCC and concluded that the incorporation of VMA leads to complete elimination of mineral filler. In such a case, a slight increase in cement content must be accompanied by a significant increase in the dosage of VMA (for instance from 2 to 7 Kg/m3) in order to obtain an unsegregable SCC even in the absence of mineral filler.
In summary, the usage of mineral and chemical admixtures is essential in maintaining the fresh and hardened properties and enhanced the durability characteristics of SCC.
2.4 Development of Self Compacting Concrete
2.4.1 Kuroiwa (1993)
Developed a new type of concrete with materials normally used in conventional concrete, that is, cement, aggregates, water and admixtures. The chemical admixtures are used to improve the deformability and viscosity properties of the concrete. The newly developed concrete was named super-workable concrete. This has shown considerable resistance to segregation and deformability. It also filled heavily reinforced form works completely without the use of any vibrators. The laboratory tests were showed that the super-workable concrete has superior fresh and hardened state properties with improved durability. Because of this, this concrete was considered to be suitable for structures having heavy reinforcement areas and used in the construction of twenty-storied buildings.
2.4.2 Nan Su, Kung-Chung Hsu and His-Wen Chai (2001)
The above authors are discussed about a simple mix design method for self-compacting concrete. The main focus was to fill voids of loosely filled aggregate with binder paste. They introduced a factor called Packing Factor (PF) for aggregate. The procedure totally depends upon the Packing Factor (PF). A higher value of PF indicates the larger aggregate content, which requires less binder and will have less flowability. It was concluded that the packing factor determines the aggregate content and influence the properties like flow ability, self-consolidating ability and strength. In his mix design, the volume of FA to mortar was in the order of 54% – 60% and found that PF value will be the controlling factor for the U – box text.
2.4.3 T. Seshadri Sekhar, P. Sravana and P. Srinivasa Rao (2005)
The authors developed SCC mixes of grades M30, M40, M50 and M60 and cast 50 mm dia. cylinders in order to test the permeability characteristics by loading in the cells duly applying constant air pressure of 15 Kg/mm2 along with water pressure of 2 Kg/mm2 for a specific period time and obtain co-efficient of permeability to conclude that the higher grade of SCC mixes, more the resistance to the permeability compared to the lower grade of SCC mixes because of the transmission of large pores to fine pores as a consequence of the pozzolanic reaction between cement paste and fly ash to substantially reduce the permeability in the cementitious matrix.
2.4.4 G. Giri Prasad, M.V. Seshagiri Rao and G.V. Rama Rao (2009)
Normal and SCC mix of M60 grade concretes have been developed by the authors altering ingredients of mix in order to find the mechanical properties by testing their compressive, tensile and flexural strengths for comparative study of both the mixes. Based on the experimental results, stress-strain curves have been plotted and the behaviour is observed to be almost similar to conventional concretes and SCC. Analytical equations have been proposed based on existing empirical models of ‘Carriera and Chu’ (1985) as modified for descending portion from ‘Popovics’ (1973) model which represents only ascending portion and ‘Saenz model’ as also modified from ‘Desayi’s Model of only ascending portion. It was concluded that values of strain at peak stress under axial compression for both the concretes are close to 0.002 as given in IS:456-2000. It was further reported that the theoretical and experimental stress-strain values have good correlation.
2.4.5 Miao Liu (2009) PhD Thesis
SCC has been developed using fly ash and ground glass by replacement of 15% cement and 14% of sand or with a glass/cement volume ratio up to 6.4% without the need of Viscosity Modifying Agent (VMA). In conclusion of ground glass leads to a required increase in w/p ratio and a slight reduction in super plasticizer dosage. Comparing the results with control mix, the mix with 40% fly ash with a volume ratio in the concrete of 7%, had 32% decrease in the super plasticizer dosage while the mix with the white glass of 6.4% concrete volume had a 17% decrease in the super plasticizer dosage.
2.4.6 S. Venkateswara Rao, Prof. M. V. Seshagiri Rao, Prof. D. Ramaseshu, P.Rathish Kumar (2010)
The SCC of three different grade concretes have been developed by the authors alerting the ingredients of mixes in order to study effect of the maximum size of coarse aggregate in the development in different grades of SCC. Powder content is the main aspect of SCC mix design. In this study, the fly ash is maximized in the SCC mixes as a filler material. From the results obtained in this investigation, a rational and simple mix design procedure is arrived for design of SCC.
2.4.7 Mallesh M, Shwetha G C, Reena K, Madhukaran (2015)
The Experimental Studies on M30 Grade Self Compacting Concrete is developed by the above authors. In this SCC suggested mix design procedure gives higher fine aggregate content but smaller content of coarse aggregate, hence the passing capacity along the voids of reinforcing bars could have been increases.
2.5 Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete
2.5.1 M. Veera Reddy and M.V. Seshagiri Rao (2007)
The authors present a mathematical model for complete stress-strain relationship for steel fibre reinforced concrete high-strength concrete and found that the analytical model developed is in close comparison with the experimental test data, and report that the second degree polynomial form of stress-strain relation suggested by Saenz is one of the better fit which is the same as reported by MLV Prasad, P.Rathish Kumar et al (2009) in the case of GFRSCC.
2.5.2 T. Suresh Babu (2008) PhD Thesis
A standard grade self-compacting concrete of mix M30 has been developed in order to develop fibre reinforced self compacting concrete using different mineral admixtures of Fly ash, Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) and the combination of both in suitable proportions. Studies were conducted on the mechanical behaviour like stress-strain properties and modulus of elasticity.
An equation relating Compressive Strength (fck) and Modulus of Elasticity (Ec) has been proposed for Plain SCC and GFRSCC mixtures as Ec= 4700?fck and Ec=5700?fck
2.5.3 M.L.V. Prasad, P.Rathish Kumar and Toshiyuki Oshima (2009)
Authors observed a Development of Analytical Stress-Strain Model for Glass Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete, in this experimental program was done in two phases. In the first phase the aim was to develop GFRSCC and come out with an optimum GF content based on fresh and hardened properties. In the second phase the mechanical behaviour of the optimized GFRSCC was investigated and stress-strain curve was established and model was proposed. Based on the experimental study on Glass Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (GFRSCC) can be satisfying the specifications laid by the EFNARC guidelines could be developed for fibrous and non fibrous concretes. The addition of the Glass Fibres in Self Compacting Concrete, it improved the peak strain and strain at 85% of the ultimate strength in descending portion. The ultimate compressive strength varied linearly with Fibre Index and it can be expressed by a relationship that includes the Fiber Index. The experimental values compared well with analytical model developed. A non-dimensionalised stress-strain equation proposed in this investigation can be used to predict the behaviour of Glass Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (GFRSCC).
2.5.4 P Sravana, P Srinivasa Rao, T Seshadri Sekhar (2010)
Flexural behaviour of glass fibre reinforced self compacting concrete slabs. The Ultimate flexural Strength of glass fibre reinforced self compacting concrete beams at 0.03 % are on higher side when compared with other beams having glass fibres 0%, 0.06% and 0.1 %. The presence of glass fibres in glass fibre reinforced self compacting concrete slabs have not improved any flexural strength. Development of multiple cracks and micro cracks is prevented with the use of glass fibres.
2.5.5 Chandrasekhar M, Seshagiri Rao M V, Janardhana Maganti (2012)
Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete and its application as Wall Panels developed by the above authors. In this investigation, Cubes of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm and cylinders of 150mm diameter x 300mm length were cast for obtaining the compressive strength and stress-strain behaviour of both plain M30 grade SCC and M30 grade GFRSCC separately. The compressive strengths of the FRSCC design mixes are found to be increased by the addition of fibres and The stress – strain behaviour of SCC and FRSCC mixes was found to be almost similar. However, it is observed that the addition of fibres has improved the stress values for the same strains.
2.6 Durability Studies
2.6.1 W Zhu J Quinn & PJM Bartos (2002)
Aspects Of Durability Of Self Compacting Concrete. To cover the range of different mix variations, three SCC mixes were designed, namely, one using limestone powder and one using PFA as additional powders and another one using no additional powder but a viscosity agent – Welan gum. SCC mixes showed significantly lower values of coefficient of permeability and sorptivity of water absorption, compared to the traditional vibrated reference mixes of the same strength grade.
2.6.2 S. Venkateswara Rao, Prof. M. V. Seshagiri Rao, Prof. D. Ramaseshu, P.Rathish Kumar (2012)
The authors observed, Durability performance of Self-compacting concrete. This paper consists of a casting and testing SCC specimens, a total of three grades of concrete was investigated:M20, M30 and M70 grades, representing ordinary, standard, and high strength concrete, respectively. In this study observed the durability aspects of NC and SCC like, acid attack, acid durability factors, thermal cycling effect, test for corrosion resistance, tests for sorptivity. The following specific conclusions may be given from this study: With the increase in duration of exposure to the acidic nature, the ASLF was increased for both NC and SCC, With increase in period of immersion of concrete in various solutions (HCL, H2SO4), there was a considerable disruption of the concrete near the corners of the standard cube and such disruption in SCC was less than to NC, it indicates the superior durability of SCC, thermal studies indicates that fly ash based SCC mixes of higher grades are performed better compared to NC, the corrosion performance was better in SCC when compared to the NC, SCC mixes are well performance of lower water absorption values in higher grades compared to NC.

2.6.3 K. Rajesh Kumar, Dr. N. Mahendran (2013)
Authors of the Experimental Studies On Strength, Durability And Behaviour Of Beam Using S.C.C. With E-Glass Fiber Strands. In this literature, all the SCC and GFSSCC mixes developed and satisfied based on the requirements of Self-Compacting Concrete specifications by EFNARC and the addition of the glass fibers strands tested improves the compressive strength, tensile strength, durability load carrying capacity of ordinary reinforced cement concrete in flexure even with small dosage levels of 0.03% & 0.06 %.
2.6.4 N. Venkat Rao, M. Rajasekhar, Mohd Mujeebuddin ahmed (2013)
The above authors are explained about an Experimental Study On Durability Of High Strength Self Compacting Concrete (HSSCC). The test specimens of 10cmX10cmX10cm cubes were immersed in 5 % of Sodium sulphate solution over a period of time. The affect of sulphate attack on performance and properties of concrete are identified. The intensity of attack by H2SO4 is comparatively more than the attack of HCL and Na2SO4 on the specimens. The percentage decrease in compressive strength of the specimens without and with immersion in HCL, H2SO4 and Na2SO4 solution of 5 % concentration after 28 days was found to be 16.31%, 47.07% and 19.86 % respectively.
2.6.5 Rizwan A. Khan, Atul Sharma (2015)
The authors observed the durability properties of the Self compacting concrete containing with different amounts of Fly ash, Lime powder and Meta Kaolin. A total of six mixes were prepared that having a constant of water-binder ratio (w/b) of 0.41. The aim of this paper can be to perform a permeability and sorptivity of SCC. A good correlation between the strength and absorption properties of concrete was found, With increase in strength, initial surface absorption and sorptivity values are decrease.
2.6.6 V.Karthik and Dr. G. Baskar (2015)
The authors of above article is study on Durability Properties of Self Compacting Concrete with Copper Slag Partially replaced for Fine Aggregate, in this investigation one control and five SCC mixes with various proportions of fine aggregate partially replaced by copper slag were prepared as per EFNARC guidelines. From the obtained experimental results, that copper slag at 60% replacement of fine aggregate gives a optimum results, and percentage shrink in weights of the specimen with and without immersion in sulphuric acid and ferrous sulphate solutions for copper slag at 60% replacement for fine aggregate at 28 days were found to be 2.38% and 1.82% respectively. The percentage decrease in compressive strength of the specimens with and without immersion in sulphuric acid and ferrous sulphate solutions for copper slag at 60% replacement of fine aggregate at 28 days were found to be 7.12% and 5.52% respectively, and also the amount of corrosion is found to be minimum, at 60% copper slag replacement for fine aggregate compared to that of control mix specimens.
2.6.7 S.Shrihari and Dr. Seshgiri Rao M.V (2016)
The authors developed Strength and Durability properties of SCC with GBFS and Meta Kaolin. In this development, test results of compressive strength of cubes and cylinders are lower values with the using of 100% river sand and Strength increased in 40% of GBFS with 10% of Meta Kaolin were replaced with the river sand. In this literature, the rapid chloride permeability test and water absorption was conducted, with the using of Meta Kaolin and increasing % of fly ash with GBFS an improvement in the impermeability of concrete and also % of water absorption gradually decreases with the use of GBFS with Meta Kaolin, the replacement of cement by Meta Kaolin leads to decrease in pore space.
2.6.8 Nishant Singh, Aditya R, Sri Rama Chand M and Rathish Kumar P (2016)
The authors were discussed about the Strength and Durability properties of Eco-SCC Using Recycled Aggregate from Building Demolished Waste (BDM). This paper consists of developing recycled and natural aggregates SCC mix proportions mix-A and mix-B based on Nan Su specifications. In this study, In self-compacting concrete, with 100% replacement for natural aggregates, recycled-SCC achieved sufficient fresh properties with slight change in water reducing agent. The compressive strengths are slightly less in RSCC specimens than NSCC specimens, For A-mix, the increase in compressive strength is 26.96% for NSCC compared to RSCC, where as in mix-B, the increase in compressive strength is 46.99% for NSCC compared to RSCC. The durability factors are high for RSCC specimens than NSCC specimens and lower grade concretes, it is quite higher than high grades. Overall that it can be stated that Recycled coarse and fine aggregates obtained from construction demolished waste can be an effective for alternative natural aggregates.

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