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brain and Behavior
Endocrine System, Brain damage, plasticity, and repair

Lisa David
Abstract
The human brain as you know is not plastic, even though plasticity is the greater in young children in later years. The human brain has ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between the brain cells. These analogies may explain some complex of the human brain. Also, study the endocrine system that is consisting of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstreams.

Reference

In brain and behavior, the author writes about how the brain affects human behavior. She explains this by scrutinizing the structure of the brain, its components and how various brain parts work. Different brain parts have a pre-determined function which they perform if they are functioning normally i.e. when they aren’t affected by disease or injury. The identified brain components determine how an individual act or behaves in different situations either by releasing hormones, sending signals to other brain parts or by working together to influence our thoughts, feelings or emotions which eventually determine how we act. Laura uses an example of a young man who had been involved in a motorcycle accident which left him unconscious for days to stress her point. The young man suffered a head injury which damaged important brain regions for recognition. This became evident when Adam woke up from his recognize the family members around him. In addition, he could even recognize the mirror reflection as his own image (Carey, 2009). His brain could no longer recognize the feeling of home, he struggled to regain familiarity and had to learn how to walk and talk all over again. This example shows the importance of the human brain in determining how we feel and or behaviors towards others and how we identify one another. Adam struggled with regaining familiarity and he was gaining progress learning how to walk and talk again. This signifies the ability of the brain to repair itself even though hard work and active effort is required.
            This example gives an overview of what the author talks about in this chapter. The chapter is a review of what is already known about the brain and a critical view of the brain and its components as the biological foundation of human behavior. The brain capacity to adapt is viewed through the biological lens and later the author gives an insight how this brain characteristic determines human behavior formed through experiences over a certain time. The brain’s ability to remain characteristic enables humans to change and adopt new behaviors. The chapter moves through various brain parts highlighting their biological function and how they eventually influence human behavior through these functions.

Human genes are also important biological factors that might have an influence on our psychological process (Clark et al, 2010; Raven et al, 2011). Although genetic science is a relatively young field, research shows that they might influence human psychology. A study of twins separated at birth until they were 39 shows that these twins did similar things, achieved similar goals, gain and lost weight almost at the same time and behaved in a similar manner even though they didn’t see each other for a period of 39 years (Plomin et al, 2009). Using a study like this, Laura, (2011) asserts that researchers can conduct further studies to understand how genetics influences who we are and how we behave. Finally, the author looks at how the science of psychology relates to the mentioned biological foundations and their implications on health issues like stress and the overall individual wellness. Through this Laura (2011) explains various considerations on how psychology can be used to unlock the brains’ unique resources to deal with common health-related challenges like stress and improve or well-being.
First, let’s begin to describe the brain what makes it so special. It is the appearance of the human brain gives few hints of its remarkable abilities. The human brain is unique, has ability to change throughout life, reorganize itself forming new connections between brain cells. The brain has a rapid cell death, and it is a disruption of functional circuit that can affected your region. If you got on any injury the tissue will recovers from events associated with cell death, regenerative processes are activated that over month lead to certain degree of functional recovery. For example, injuries of the central nervous system causes stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. The most popular is stroke that affected very large patient with major physical and emotional suffering. The brain also can modify its connections or rewire itself. Without of knowledge any brain, animal or human it would be unable to develop from child through to adulthood to recover any activity from brain injury. The brain is like a wireless, it transported movement and motor skills signals in parallel. It has a lot a different way that can be replicate another’s function so that small mistake in development loss of function through damage that be easily corrected by rerouting signals on a different movement in the system. When errors happen in the brain are in large, it develop virus like the Zika virus are the result of brain damage from the blow to the head will cause you to have a stroke. These examples can overcome adversity so that some function is recovered (Rayner et al., 2007).

Scientific researcher believes the brain anatomy is something that can be predicted by your parents and your genes. For example, there is an injury in the Bain it will devoted to movement of the right arm, meaning this part of the brain will repair of the right arm. That part of the brain will have a sensation rom the arm; you will have no feeling in you right the arm and no movement. This region part of the brain will remained unrelated fell for motor skills function will not be able to take new of new role.
Some part of the bodies has ability to recover after a brain damage can be explained by the damaged area of the brain getting better, which can be result of a neuroplasticity, forming new neural connection. In a study by Stein, Donald G. PhD, he used a model organism in research; it was found that losing your sense of touch will increases the sense of smell. These also found by losing one sense will reverse others. Like losing your motor skills in early age in life can be frighten other senses, like hearing.
An additional, people who seat for a long time, like taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus in the posterior region said (Maguire, Woollett, & Spiers, 2006). It because this region of the hippocampus is specialized in acquiring and using complex spatial information in orders to navigate efficiently. Plasticity can also be observed in the brains of bilinguals (Mechelli et al., 2004). If your student learning English as your second language is it possible functional changes in the brain, meaning the left inferior parietal cortex is larger in bilingual brains than in monolingual brains. Plasticity can also occur in musician brains compared to non-musicians. Gaser and Schlaug (2003) said compared professional musicians to amateur musicians and non-musicians. They found that gray matter meaning the cortex volume was highest in professional musicians, intermediate in amateur musicians, and lower in non-musicians in several brains areas involved in playing music, motor regions, and anterior superior parietal areas and inferior parietal areas. Learning is a very essential component of the brain adaptation to brain damage even when there are no overt rehabilitation efforts. One of the most reliable behavior consequences of brain damage is each individual try to recover on the own space, to perform daily activity to help them develop strategies to perform activities in the presence of lost function.
In neuroscience research, learning involves changes in genes, synapses, neurons and neuronal networks within specific brain regions. Brain damage results in many changes in neurons and non-neuronal brain cells that can be alter these learning processes. Research on the neurobiology of learning and memory suggests that, for each new learning event, there is some necessary and sufficient change in the nervous system that supports the learning (Cooper, 2005). This neuroplasticity of learning is driven by changes in behavior, sensory, and cognitive experiences. Basically, brain damage is reliance on the less effected body side is associated with major neuroplasticity changes in the unaffected hemisphere, this change may also limit the propensity of individuals to engage in behavior that improve function of the impaired body side (Allfred, 2005).
During and after stroke, the neurological functions associated with the infracted area are loss. It will take months for certain neurological function to recover; approximately 50% of stroke patients have remaining hemiparesis explain Tadeusz (2006), and 30% are unable to walk, and 26% remain severely disabled with a need for daily attention. Recovery sometime during the first month can challenges, depends on the degree of tissue loss and the preservation of neuronal networks that serve as substrates for the restoration of lost brain functions. The most comprehensive relevant literature is how to treat people with post stroke mechanism, and this is the primary focus.
The endocrine system you don’t have to watch CSI to know action. Molecules and cells inside your body have a significant dynamic adventure on many levels at all the time. For example, when your insulin molecules, carried along in the blood, attach to protein receptor of nearby cells, the response in dramatic. Glucose molecules begun to disappear from the blood into the cells and cellular activity accelerates. The endocrine system is the body system consisting of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstreams.

The means of control and the speed of the endocrine system are very different from the nervous system. The nervous system regulates the activity of muscles and a gland by electro chemical impulses delivered by neurons (Laura 2018). The endocrine system effect the metabolic movement by developing hormones which are chemical messengers that released blood to be transported throughout the body system. Irrevocable of a hormone to cellular motor regulated an initiates responses that typically occur after a large period of second or days. Those responses tend to be much more prolonged than those induced by the nervous system. The hormones are the most ultimate targets in most cells of the body, and hormones have spreads and have many diverse effects. The major processes controlled and integrated by “mighty molecules”, are reproduction; growth and development; maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood; regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balance; and mobilization of body defenses. The endocrine system orchestrates processes that go on for relatively long periods in some instances continuously. The science who studies hormones and the endocrine organs is called endocrinology.
The endocrine system have eight majors glands formed up of the hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries in females and testicles, per the Mayo clinic. The word endocrine came from the Greek words “endo”, mean within, and “crine”, mean to secrete, per Health Mentor Online. Basically, a gland is selects to removes materials from the blood; it processes and secretes the finished chemical product for use in the body. First the hypothalamus gland is located in the central part of the brain and it is very important in regulated the metabolism, body temperature and it also secrete hormone called the somatostatin. Second is the pituitary gland is very small, located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is very important is the endocrine system, it produced hormone and also controlled other functions on the endocrine glands. Third. Is the thyroid gland located in your neck. It plays a big role in your body metabolism, growth and nervous system.the thyroid gland help maintain your weight, heart rate, blood pressure and your reproduction system. Sometimes, when women having a hard time with weight or having child, thyroid system play a big role on your body system. Fourth is the parathyroid gland have two pairs of glands lay in the surface of the thyroid glands. It plays a role in regulated calcium and bone metabolism. The adrenal gland is made of the adrenal cortex and second the adrenal medulla. the adrenal gland develop emotion, stress and sometimes alleviated heart rate and blood pressure. The pineal gland or pineal body, is located in the middle of the brain. It function is the with sleeping bite and awake cycle. The reproductive glands is located in the scrotum, it also the reproductive of sex hormones, it secrete hormones that is called androgens in male. Usually the hormone characteristics function is for sexual development, purity, facial hair and sperm in female it is called the ovaries, both is uterus develop progesterone and eggs. In female , those hormones functions is to development breast growth and many more.
“The endocrine system affects almost every organ and cell in the body”, according to Merck Manuel. basically, the hormones move around the body, each type of hormone has a role toward certain organs and tissues, per the Merck Manuel notes. The endocrine system gets some help from organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads, which they function is to have have secondary places the endocrine system. The kidney always secretes hormones such as erythropoietin and renin. Compared to other organs in the body, the endocrine system is small and unimpressive. Unlike, the arrangement in most organ systems, the endocrine organs is not grouped together in the body. Instead, endocrine organs are widely scattered about the body.
There two kinds of glands, exocrine products non-hormonal substances, such as sweat and saliva, and have dust that carry these substances to a membrane surface. The second is endocrine glands also called ductless glands produce hormone and lack ducts. They release their hormone into the surrounding tissue and they typically have a rich vascular and lymphatic drainage that receives their hormones. Most of the hormone producing cells in endocrine glands is arranged in cords and branching networks a situation that maximizes contact between them and the capillaries surrounding them.
Sometimes if the levels are too high or low is indicate a problem with the endocrine system. Hormones disease also occur in your body if the hormone is not respond in the appropriate ways, per Dr. Jerome M. Hershman, a professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and author of the thyroid sections of the Merck Manuel. Stress, infection and changes in the bloods fluids and electrolyte balance can also product influence hormone levels high in the body.
Hormone produce glands arise from all three embryonic germ layers. Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones. All others produce amines, peptides, or protein hormones. It is usually too considered important when describing hormone effectiveness, exposure too many environment pollutants has been shown to disrupt endocrine function. These pollutants include many pesticides, industrial chemicals, arsenic, dioxin and other soil and water pollutant. So far, sex hormones ,thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids have demonstrated a vulnerable to the production of such pollutants. The obstruct with glucocorticoids, which is usually turn on many genes that may causes cancer, and may also help to understand the volume of high cancer rates crisis in certain areas of the country, said Draganski and colleagues (2006). The most common endocrine disease is diabetic. Diabetic is a disease which the body don’t properly process glucose very well per Dr. Jennifer, chief of the department of endocrinology. People most of the time thinks will have diabetic if you’re overweight. It is important to understand people with this disease and their health history as well the family, Myed noted. Most of the time diabetes is treated with pills or insulin injections. Managing this disorder involves stabilities on your food or hormones levels with medication. Treating endocrine disorders takes a very careful and personalized approach, said Myers, as adjusting the levels of one hormone can impact the balance of other hormone. Hormone imbalances have a very significant on the reproductive system, especially in women Loh explained.

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