B) The solution to the first issue is despite the slower than expected growth, the overall strategy of adhering to moderate fiscal consolidation has been confirmed. If the chancellor of the exchequer does not adhere to his strategy and choose Keynesian spending to raise interest rates, then the reaction of the financial market may be very bad. When our financial problems have been and are very serious, keeping bond yield low is a considerable achievement. The fiscal deficit from the “financial dilemma.” After that, the planned deficit reduction should remain unchanged at least at a minimum of course you should not relax. As the economy continue to grow there is a very strong reason to cut spending and cut taxes.

The solution to the second issue is if the ZLB often prevent the Fed from providing sufficient stimulus then on average, the inflation is expected to be below the fed’s 2% target a clear indication of KR’s simulation. The problem is that neither market this kind of underfunding. There are various possibilities but the market and forecasters may only believe that the fed will develop policy methods to overcome the ZLB issue.

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The solution to the third issue is in the case of near full employment the higher government borrowing will lead to crowding out the government lending reduces the size of the private sector and reduces privates sector investment. Before that, as the economy grows, increase government borrowing may push up bond yields and higher interest rates, which may reduce private sector investment. Then, if the economy is fully employed and the government adopts an expansionary fiscal policy, they will see a higher inflation rate and can save tax cuts without spending money. In a serve recession, consumers may be reluctant to spend money even if you cut taxes. This may also depend on the amount of tax you are tax deducting. Low income workers have a higher marginal propensity spending. In times lags, fiscal policy takes time to implement. The government must decide which projects to follow and there is time before the project begins.

b) Pricing strategy.

i. Pricing Objective
In a sense, every price is profit-oriented because even if you set the prices different with other objective in mind, you still have to get the profit to stay in business. However, price of profit-oriented will be the first priority in making profit when we think about the ideal price to be set. Strategy of profit-oriented pricing is searching for the exact spot that can allows you to charge as much as possible for the offer that you set without charging so much that you alienate to potential customers and lose money through missed sales. The aim of determining the type of pricing is to maximize the profitability per unit compare to the cost of goods sold and the others operational cost.
ii. Price Strategies
Price Penetration
Price penetration strategy will be sets relatively lower price to a new service or product for reaching the mass market in the introduction stage of a product’s life cycle. Even though many of new companies are using this kind of strategy to draw competitors attention away, pricing penetration does tend to result in initial loss of income for the business. Other than that, factor of cost also can hinder potential of new entrants into the markets.
iii. Pricing tactics
Charm Pricing
Charm pricing means the price of the service just a few cent lower so that the first number of the price will looks cheaper. For example, if you’re using charm pricing tactics, you would sell your product or service for Rm399.99 instead of Rm400 because Rm399.99 seems like it less. Traveloka is using charm pricing tactics. As you can see at the website of Traveloka, the price will be shown as Rm 471.99 instead of Rm 472 because it will looks more cheaper.

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(iv) Sales promotion- Major Tools
Discounts and Coupons
These are offered in Traveloka’s website and it’s application that can be download from App Store or Google Play Store. You can offer discounts and coupons via email to your email list or as a thank you when people download the apps or visits the website.

(v) Personal Selling – interpersonal interactions
Personal selling is a personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. Personal selling involves direct spoken communication between sellers and potential customers. Sales people get immediate feedbacks from customers and can adapt the marketing mix on the spot to meet customer needs better. A down side is that a sales force can be very expensive to build, support, and maintain.
d) Place Strategy (Channel Structure).

i. Type of Marketing Channel :
Direct Marketing
Direct marketing is an interactive system of marketing, which uses one or more advertising media to affect a measureable response or transaction at any location. Traveloka is using direct channel that establish the relationship with customer through the technique of personal selling and e-commerce. This type of marketing channel brings benefits to both buyer and also the seller. This direct marketing is easy to use and more privacy for buyers. Because of the benefits that both side receive, direct marketing has become the fastest growing form of marketing.
b) Porter Five Forces

Description :Bargaining power of customers ( Low )
The bargaining power of customers is low because customers are not affected with the price that Traveloka offered. This is because Traveloka’s price is really affordable and reasonable.
Threat of substitutes ( Moderate )
We have been observe the price of our flight ticket purchasing and hotel booking, the different between our price and the original price are not to far. So, that is not much to worry about.

Extent of rivalry between competitors ( High )
Travel agency is a business that really competitive because this type of business can grown fast in the internet. That’s why Traveloka need to keep an eye on the others competitors.

Threats of new entrants ( High )
Techonology nowdays are growing advanced and modern. There will be many new entrants that will appear with different innovation which can be better than Traveloka.

Power of Suppliers ( High )
Traveloka is really strong in the power of suppliers because Traveloka have many company that offering to cooperate with them.

Otherwise known as Indian corn, Maize is what led the formation of Native American culture and agriculture techniques. Maize allowed a population of 20 million to be fed, going across South America and Mexico. It is also responsible for transforming once nomadic societies into more civilization based cultures. It could arguably have been responsible for the development of advanced civilizations such as the Aztec and Inca culture. In 1492, with the ‘finding’ of snazzy doodle America, the Columbian Exchange is similar to the trading of crops, livestock, and products. Products such as tomatoes, horses, pigs, corn, and precious metals drastically changed European diet, way of life for Natives, and prompted control of the ‘New World’ to acquire such resources. The introduction of tomatoes and potatoes in the ‘Old World’ changed European cuisine and agricultural techniques, while the domestication of horses in the ‘New Word’ influenced some Native American lifestyles from farmers to a more nomadic way of life. The Columbian Exchange also encouraged the growth of cultures, disease, fascination of the ‘New World’, and oversea travel. Although both were groups of settlers from Europe, Puritans were typically of the upper-middle class who believed in the Church of England and was still a part of England, while Pilgrims typically consisted of lower class individuals seeking religious freedom and economic opportunities. The Pilgrims arrived before the Puritans at around the early 1620s, while Puritans arrived later from 1629-1630. Majority of the Puritans were educated, many from Oxford or Cambridge, later coming to form Harvard University, while many Pilgrims had little education. They later came together to unify their colonies in 1689.The Virginia House of Burgesses represented a mini house of parliament, authorized by the the London Company in 1619 within British American colonies. It was the example of a snazzy doodle self runned ongoing government, which was revoked by James I who thought this grouping was too dangerous. However, Virginia became a royal colony. As many from Europe were seeking another life in the colonies, in exchange for transatlantic passage, migrants would dedicate three to seven years of service to their employer. They were provided food, shelter, and a form of payment when their service has completed. Indentured servants were a result out of the desperate need for labor force. However, this form of unfiltered work were the building blocks to the slavery in America, as well as allowing the snazzy Chesapeake colonies getting used to unfree labor. Many indentured servants were also subjected to harassment from their masters. The Navigation Acts was a mercantilist system going from the years 1651-1673 that snazzily exploited colonial resources for British gains. This prompted certain crops required to be produced, a quota needed to be met by British trading standards, and limited colonial competition that could beat British markets. This was invoked to allow greater control England had over its colonies, allowing only British ships to export colonial goods. Jonathan Edwards; George Whitefield: The Great Awakening was a religious revival that occured in the mid to late 18th century. This movement followed the Enlightenment movement, in which secular basis of philosophy, science, and education were promoted, causing a decline in religious influence. It is from the Great Awakening in which Protestant Christianity became the predominant  religion in America. Religion was catered in a much more personalized direction, causing many to convert and form denominations. Salutary neglect refers to the lack  regulation the Mother Country enforced, allowing to colonies developing own legislation and laws, but ultimately allowing the colonies to gain a sense of freedom (could be equivalent to a degree of abandonment). Salutary Rigor refers to the overpowered control the Mother Country has over the colonies, leading to colonies feeling oppressed and restricted in their right of choice. Salutary neglect lasted from the 1600s to the 1700s, enacted to allow Britain to devote more focus in European policies. With Salutary Rigor, enforced to allow Britain to recover from war debt, the colonies began to revolt against sudden control Britain had, which then lead up to the American Revolution. Following the French and Indian War, land across Ohio, Canada, Mississippi was given to Britain, in which American colonists hoped that they could expand westward into this new territory. This was to prevent further conflict with the Natives, however angered many colonists who purchased land in this new territory that is now of void. However, colonists attempted to settle in this new territory, creating some problems with British forces and the Natives living there. Thomas Paine was an England-born political philosopher who was known for his writing of ‘Common Sense’ (published in 1776). He immigrated to Philadelphia in 1774, who became friends with many wanting to invoke political change. He published his pamphlet ‘Common Sense’ to advocate American Independence. One of his key points was based off the supply needed to fuel the American Revolution, and what that would mean for the rest of the world. It called to action to make America as a place of equality of all mankind. With 150,000 copies sold, Paine aimed to reach the common audience with simple statements, leading to powerful effect as ‘Common Sense’ pushed American spirit fueling the snazzy American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence was verified on  July 4, 1776 by Congress to state the colonies’ freedom from Britain and state themselves free of their oppression. The document also stated Enlightenment ideals that stated the rights given to man. The declaration was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, but many such as a Franklin and ADams contributed to the formation of the document. Loyalists consisted twenty percent of the colonies’ population, who were richer, conservative, and older. They were often officers of the king and officials of the crown, and many were followers of the Anglican religion. Many Patriots consisted majority of the colonies’ population, comprised of younger and poorer settlers. The persecution of Loyalists became clearer after the legitimization of the Declaration of the Independence. Crafted in 1781, the Articles of Confederation was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Although it is the nation’s first constitution, it granted heavy control to the states with limited power to the federal government, causing confusion and chaos. This however was important in uniting the United States towards independence and promising a path of democracy for the colonies. The Northwest Ordinance regulated the terms and conditions for newly admitted states. This made new states unable to have slavery, but allowed voters to establish a slave institution. This provided groundwork for the expansive northwest territory. However, as always conflict always followed. Whether or not a territory should be admitted was up for debate. John Locke: Also known as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment is an 18th century movement in Western philosophy, wanting change for the depressive human state and improved living conditions. It challenged customs, morals, and set institutions. This prompted developments in science, education, arts, and philosophy. The idea centered around having a strong and centralized government, This was fueled by Shays Rebellion, as Federalism was a response to economic and civil injustice. From John Adams, Federalism reached its peak but from his decline Federalism reached an end to its substantial influence. The Bill of Rights consisted of the first Ten Constitutional Amendments. This guaranteed rights to all American citizens regardless of circumstance, and was enacted by Anti-Federalists fearing government control on colony rights. The US Constitution established national government and fundamental laws in which the country abides by, creating groundwork for governmental branches, procedures on running a nation, and actions the president should uphold. The American Revolution was an event that took place in between 1765 and 1783, where the 13 colonies enacted war against Britain. Invoked by Salutary Rigor, while the American Revolution is a reaction from the colonies of Britain’s tight control. It is when too many resources were used and the effort but in was substantial where the colonies declared independence from Britain. Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. Linked to Republican ideals, the role of women was elevated as the caretaker of the future generation. It made being a mother and a carer of America’s future children a highly important role in keeping America’s conscience and morals clean. Republican motherhood was also an idea that prompted women to spend more time to their families, dedicating their time in creating a prosperous household. They are a collection of essays that is meant to how a new government should work. It is crafted by American Patriots  John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, which purpose was to argue why a strong centralized government is needed for a nation to be most effective. This was meant to ratify the constitution for up against the New York state legislature. The Bill of Rights consist of the First Ten Amendments, meaning to guarantee the rights of all citizens. It also ensured the protection of the five basic liberties: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. This is significant as it ensured a nation with rights that had not occured prior to such a scale, securing the next road of the colonies to have the basic freedoms. As many farmers in Pennsylvania were upset by Hamilton’s tax on whiskey, a riot occured which led to the deaths of federal officers. The tax was enacted in order to pay off debts from the Revolutionary War. This event was significant as it demonstrated the swiftness in the big head response, also proving that the Federal Government has a right to collect taxes.  Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. They are four acts passed in 1798 by Federalist Congress  that were signed by President Adams. The four acts are were the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Alien Enemy Act, and the Sedition Act. The Naturalization Act increased citizen waiting time from 5 to 14 years, the Alien Act allowed the president to arrest and deport aliens, the Alien Enemy Act allowed war enemy citizens in the US to be deported, and the Sedition Act made it illegal to publish negative statements on federal officials. They are political statements declaring that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. Both fighted that states had the right to declare any acts of Congress that were not supported by the Constitution to be unconstitutional. The Resolutions were written anonymously by James and Madison.

B. Pinocytosis:
Some take in food by way of phagocytosis, engulfing organic particles with pseudopodia (as amoebae do), or taking in meals via a specialized mouth-like aperture known as a cytostome. some protozoans soak up meals by using osmotrophy, absorbing dissolved nutrients thru their cellular membranes pinocytosis or cell-consuming has additionally been suggested in some protozoa like Amoeba proteus, and additionally in positive flagellates and ciliates. it’s far associated with the ingestion of liquid food through invagination of the general frame floor. it is able to occur at any part of the body; during pinocytosis, some pinocytic channels are fashioned from the outer body floor deep into the body.the inner ends of those channels’ include pinocytic vesicles or pinosomes which get separated after engulfing liquid food thru the channels. The separated pinosomes come to be the meals vacuoles. this method is triggered in presence of positive salts and some proteins.

C. Autotrophic Or Holophytic Nutrition:
Protozoa with chlorophyll or a few allied pigment can also manufacture complex organic meals, like the ones of inexperienced vegetation, from simple inorganic substances, For example, euglena, noctiluca. regularly there may be protein bodies known as pyrenoids that are the base of photosynthesis.A few protozoa haven’t any of chromatophores but they have got chlorophyll-bearing algae zooxantliellae or zoochldrellae which make organic food for the host with the aid of photosynthesis, For example, Stentor, thalassicola, Paramecium bursaria. nitrates or ammonium compounds are sufficient because the source of nitrogen for autotrophic forms.
D. Saprozoic Nutrients:
Some protozoa take in complex natural materials in solution through the frame floor by means of osmosis referred to as osmotrophy,and these are known as saprozoic. Saprozoic paperwork want ammonium salts, amino acids, or peptones for his or her dietary requirements. Decaying of animals and flowers in water bureaucracy proteins and carbohydrates.
The saprozoic protozoa are generally parasites like monocystis. However a few parasites, like Entamoeba histolytica and balantidium coli feeding also absorb dissolved organic materials by their standard body floor. However, some colourless flagellates like chilomonas, polytoma and species of euglena soak up nutrients from their surrounding environment thru their fashionable body floor
E. Parasitic Nutrition:
The parasitic protozoans use a wide form of feeding techniques, and some may additionally alternate strategies of feeding in different stages of their life cycle. For example, the malaria parasite Plasmodium feeds by using pinocytosis for the duration of its immature trophozoite stage of lifestyles (ring segment), but develops a dedicated feeding organelle (cytostome) as it matures within a bunch’s red blood cell.Accordingly, the parasites can be grouped into two categories on the way of food and their mode of feeding:
(I) Meals-Robbers:
Those feeding upon the undigested or digested foodstuffs of their hosts are known as meals-robbers, And with some ciliate parasites like nyctotherus, balantidium. those parasites feed holozoically on stable food debris, few others like opalina feed upon the liquid food via the osmosis through their fashionable body surfaces.These are generally non-pathogenic to their hosts.
(Ii) Pathogenic:
Some protozoan parasites inflicting harm to their hosts, normally feed upon the dwelling tissues of the host.Liquid food take in by their widespread body surface, e.g., trypanosoma, plasmodium, and so on.
F. Coprozoic Nutrients:
Some loose-living protozoans are in habit of feeding on the faecal matters of the opposite organisms like Clamydophrys and Dimastigamoeba.

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G. Mixotrophic Nutrients:
They might also stay as mixotrophs, supplementing a heterotrophic weight-reduction plan with the some form of autotrophy.Shape of some protozoa close institutions with symbiotic photosynthetic algae, which stay and grow within the membranes of the bigger cell and offer nutrients to their host. Others practice kleptoplasty, stealing chloroplasts from prey organisms and maintaining them inside their own cell bodies as they retain to produce nutrients through photosynthesis. The ciliate mesodinium rubrum keeps functioning plastids from the cryptophyte algae on which it feeds. Thus, in turn, can be passed alongside to dinoflagellates of the genus dinophysis , which prey on mesodinium rubrum but keep the enslaved plastids for themselves inside dinophysis, these plastids can retain to characteristic for months.Other protozoa nourish themselves with the aid of more than one method at the equal time or at one of a kind instances because of change in environment. that is known as mixotrophic vitamins, e.g., euglena gracilis and also peranema are each saprozoic and autotrophic in their nutrients, and a few flagellates are both autorophic and zootrophic.however, protozoa which feed on a large variety of meals organisms are called euryphagous, and people which feed most effective on a few kinds of meals are stenophagous.
On the premise of the nature of meals and feeding mechanism in protozoa, they’re placed in the following corporations:
(a) macrophagous feeders are those which feed on massive pieces of meals (amoeba),
(b) microphagous feeders are the ones which feed on very small debris, they not often prevent feeding and their meals is drawn in with a modern-day of water (paramecium).
(c) fluid feeders are saprozoic and parasitic protozoa which take in liquid meals through their surface (monocystis).
2.2.Breathing In Protozoa:
For the process of respiration protozoa do not have any organellae. The restricting permeable membrane acts as a respiration floor. The unfastened molecular oxygen from the encircling media enters into the frame by the diffusion. Presence of a cytochrome device has been also verified in protozoa.
Protozoa thet stay as parasites in the digestive tube of better animals do now not get molecular oxygen in free nation however get it via decomposing complicated oxygen bearing substances present within the body of the host.
Anaerobic protozoa include trypanosoma gambiense of vertebrate blood. while histomonas meleagridis, a flagellate in the intestine of fowl can grow in presence of air in addition to without it and is a ‘facultative aerobe’
Fig2.3.Respiration in protozoa

2.3Excretion In Protozoa:
Water, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous compounds that are waste materials and stay in soluble form. These are surpassed out of the frame by means of diffusion or by way of the contractile vacuoles surrounding water is hypertonic to freshwater amoeba.
For example
So, water constantly enters through the mobile surface in the frame of amoeba. This excess water interferes with the body capabilities and is removed via the discharge of contractile vacuole. Marine or parasitic protozoa live in isotonic media and they no longer have contractile vacuoles.
A minor quantity of carbon dioxide is diffused out via the cellular floor rest of the carbon dioxide and ammonia which remain in soluble kingdom are thrown out of the frame by the contractile vacuoles.
Insoluble materials inside the shape of crystals of calcium phosphate (recorded in amoeba proteus) ureate, carbonate, oxalate and grains (haemozomin in haemosporidians) are frequently encountered. These substances are considered as catabolic merchandise. The manner they’re extruded remains in statement level in most protozoa, excretion of nitrogen takes place within the form of ammonia and loose amnio acid.

Fig2.4.Excretion in protozoa


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