A condition that transpires when the
lungs can’t remove all the carbon dioxide the body manufactures is known as
respiratory acidosis (Epstein, 2001). When the lung’s do not remove the carbon
dioxide, the blood becomes acidic excessively. It is also known as an acid-base
balance disturbance that is due to alveolar hypoventilation. The normal respiratory
acidosis PaCO2 range is 35-45 mm Hg (Epstein, 2001). The normal blood pH for respiratory
acidosis is 7.35 and 7.45. The source for respiratory acidosis are diseases
within in lung tissue (pulmonary fibrosis), sleep apnea, heavy pain
medications, and acute obesity. Its symptoms are short of breath, confusion,
and lethargy (Hadjiliadis, 2016).  The compensatory answer to respiratory
acidosis is a raise in bicarbonate levels. He kidneys hold on to bicarbonate. Respiratory
acidosis can be diagnosed by chest x-ray, CT scan, or pulmonary function test.
There are a couple of treatments known for respiratory acidosis. A CPAP which
is a noninvasive positive pressure ventilation may be prescribes (Hadjiliadis, 2016). Also, drugs that
reverse airway obstruction, oxygen, and therapy that help to stop smoking are
also treatments.

Respiratory alkalosis condition
pronounced by a low level of carbon in the blood due to breathing inordinately.
The source of this condition is hyperventilation, anxiety, pregnancy and fever.  Lung diseases can lead to short of breath and
may also cause respiratory alkalosis (pulmonary embolism or asthma). The indicators
may consist of being light headed, dizziness, numbness of the hands and feet. To
determine the pH for respiratory alkalosis is pH > 7.45. The normal range is
7.35-7.45.  Direct activity to the respiratory
centre can causes respiratory alkalosis. 
The source of respiratory alkalosis is hyperventilation.
Hyperventilation is when someone breathes rapidly or deeply. The causes of this
are asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pregnancy, and drug use (Acid Base Physiology, n.d.). In respiratory
alkalosis alterations within the physicochemical equilibrium occur because of
lowered pCO2, results in modest decrease in HCO3. There isn’t adequate time for
the kidneys to answer, therefore this is the only change in respiratory
alkalosis. The overall response is a decrease in bicarbonate levels. Perhaps
anxiety is the main cause of the condition, using a mask so you can take in carbon

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Metabolic acidosis is present when there’s
a clinic disturbance distinguished by an increase in plasma acidity (Quinn, 2017).  One of the causes of metabolic acidosis is
when the kidneys aren’t dumping plenty of acid from the body. The three types
of metabolic acidosis are lactic acidosis, diabetic acidosis, and hyperchloremic
acidosis.  Diabetic ketoacidosis is a
consequential complication of diabetes. This is a result of the body producing
high levels of blood acid ketones and not being able to produce enough insulin.
Hyperchloremic acidosis is present when there is a decrease in plasma
bicarbonate concentration and an increase in plasma chloride concentration.
Lactic acidosis is present when there is a buildup if lactate in the body. This
results in extremely low pH in the blood. Kidney diseases, poisoning by
methanol and severe dehydration can cause metabolic acidosis. The normal HCO3
range is 22-26mmol/L. To determine the metabolic component in metabolic
acidosis you use the formula <22mmol/L. The pH for metabolic acidosis is 7.35 or lower. The body’s response to metabolic acidosis is foreseeable. Ventilation increases to blow off CO2. This decreases the amount of acid in the blood. Frequent treatments for metabolic acidosis are insulin if you have DKA which can you in a coma, detoxification from drug or alcohol poisoning, iv fluids, and sodium bicarbonate administered through an iv. When your body loses so much acid or gains to much base, this is known as metabolic alkalosis. Attributed to this is adrenal disease, antacids, laxatives, and alcohol abuse.   Loss of hydrogen ions, contraction alkalosis, and shift of hydrogen ions into the intracellular space can generate metabolic alkalosis. Hydrogen ions can be lost through the GI tract or kidneys. Shifting of hydrogen ions into the intracellular space overall develops with hypokalemia. Handing tremoring, muscles spasms for an excessive amount of time, muscle twitching are signs of metabolic alkalosis. The pH level is 7.45 or higher, also HCO3>26 mmol/L. In
order to retain CO2 we have to hyperventilate. However, stimulation of brain
chemoreceptors with an elevated PaCO2 dulls the hypoventilation required to
correct the pH. Basically, ventilation decreases when holding on to CO2. To
treat metabolic alkalosis, you need to correct the blood pH. You can undergo
dialysis, and get iv fluids.

Elderly age might compromise the
acid-base balance process. One major organs, the kidney, has a distinct
structural and functional phenotypic change that happens while you are growing older.
Elderly people people have a decrease in glomerular filtration and renal in
renal plasma flow then of a younger individual. At age 40 the decrease or
decline starts. On standard occasions, elderly people can maintain an
electrolyte balance, however, in dangerous situations that can be gone. This
makes them subject to hypernatremia, hyponatremia, and volume depletion. Plasma
sodium is the most familiar electrolyte disturbance occurring in older aging people.  Furthermore, a decline in urinary
concentration ability and thirst can contribute to dehydration which is usual
in elderly patients.








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