1. Integrated Pest Management: it is
known as integrated pest control and it takes advantages of all appropriate
pest management methods for the control of pests. It is a more effective and
environmental sensitive way to control pests.


2. Organic Agriculture: It is a
system that begins to consider potential environmental and social impacts by
eliminating the use of synthetic inputs such as pesticides and chemical
fertilizers that might effect human health and the environment.

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3. Broad Spectrum Pesticide and give
an example: A broad-spectrum pesticide, or non-selective pesticides, aim the entire
groups of pests including fungus, insects, mammals and weeds. Broad Spectrum
Pesticides can effectively kill all the pests on the crops during growing
seasons. For example, pyrethroid is one of the broad spectrum pesticides.


4. Narrow Spectrum Pesticide and
give an example: Narrow spectrum pesticides, or selective pesticides, aim only
one specific type of insects. For example, Brodifacoum.

5. FIFRA: “The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is
the Federal statute that governs the registration, distribution, sale, and use
of pesticides in the United States.” (EPA). It was enacted by the U.S. congress
in 1947, and administrated by the EPA





Second part:  


is a kind of insect called aphids that might appears all seasons on apple
trees. “Aphids are tiny, pinhead-sized insects, varying in color depending on
the type.” (Starkbros) They usually hide under leaves. Aphids can also produce
a sticky residue called “honeydew” that can easily attracts ants and
other insects and impact the health condition of the apple trees. So, in order
to kill this kind of insect and prevent the other kinds of insect that might be
attracted to the apple tree by the aphids, we use broad spectrum, or
non-selective pesticide such as concentrate bug killer spray and fruit tree
spray to effectively control all kinds of insects on the tree.


common pest that threatens the apple tree is the elk which is a kind of mammal
and might appear all seasons. The elk will eat apple off the trees if the trees
are too low. The elks will negatively impact the profit of planting apple trees
since the elks will eat a lot of apples. Using Integrated Pest Management, I
suggest that we plant trees that will be too high for elks. Also, we should
keep elk predators such as cougars and grey wolves on the farm.


the rainy season, a fungus called Cryptosporiopsis
curvispora is spread by rain. This type
of fungus appears as red or purple little circular spots on the bark when the
apple trees get wet. As they grow they become larger and get orange to brown.
This fungus will lead to disease like Anthracnose, but the decease seldom kills
tree but it will bring negative societal impact when it sells on the market and
human ingest those apples. And this fungus will also impact the surrounding
areas in the rainy seasons. I suggest that we use selective, or narrow spectrum
pesticide such as copper fungicide and decease control spray on the branches
and twigs in order to control this fungus. And we also try to keep the bark and
branches dry to decrease the amount of fungus.





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