ABSTRACT:
This paper summarizes the negative impacts of advertisements on our society. The kind of exposure people now-a-days have towards Internet, electronic and print media compels one to re-think on the effects that these advertisements have on the minds of the general public. The main aim of this research was to find out how the overwhelming amount of advertisements is affecting the people in our society. Many recent studies suggest that the advertising clutter is damaging our most critical organ that, is brain. Advertisements manipulate and distract us in such a way that our minds become enslaved and our needs or desires come under control of these advertisings. It particularly has terrible effects on children, teenagers and youth. According to my research advertisements are of great importance in today’s world but the adverse effects of advertisements are increasing day by day and diminishing the effectiveness of ads. Advertising makes us feel that we are not good enough as we are. Promoting idealism, advertisements create an unrealistic image of perfection in our minds. Hence, a solution is required to reduce the harmful effects of advertisements.

PROBLEM STATEMENT:
Advertisements affect our daily lives and as the technology is developing, we have become exposed to greater amount of advertisements. The purpose of advertisements is to educate the people about different products or services. But my area of concern is to find out answers about following problems:
Does Advertisements are only benefitting the people or does it also have any kind of harmful effects?
Advertisements are creating unrealistic images of perfection in people’s minds. Is this true?
Is advertising destroying our cultural and moral values?
Is advertising an art of depriving people of their money for something they don’t need?
How advertising is affecting badly on our children?
LITERATURE REVIEW:
The first evidence of advertisement was found among the ancient Babylonian empire back in 3000 BC. The first ever advertisement went for print in 1472, to sell a prayer book. Since the late 1800’s psychologists are trying to find out ways how ads can effect an individual mentally and emotionally. There are two different groups on this issue: One group believes that ads are causing damage to our society while the other one believes that ads do not have negative impact on people. Richard polly , in his book The Distorted mirror used the metaphor of “Brain surgery” while speaking about the influence of ads on society. In a chapter from textbook: “Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in Materialistic World” it is stated that commercials manipulate people’s strongest desires and greatest fears to convince them to buy the product. Many advertisement critics believe that there are many such messages shown through ads that we don’t even know that we are receiving.
One other point is that advertising has negative influence on children and teenagers. In “Kid Kustomers” Eric Schlosser addresses those advertisements that target children. In 1980’s, when the parents start spending more money on children but less time with them, it was the time when children have begun to be targeted by advertisements of phone companies, auto companies as well as clothing stores etc. When these advertisements start affecting the children, they cannot differentiate between reality and fantasy ads.

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INTRODUCTION:
Advertising has positive as well as negative, social and economic impacts on our society. We are exposed to hundreds of ads and commercials for various products every day. This excessive amount of advertisements cannot be side lined and affects all those surrounded by it. The purpose of advertisements is to educate the user about the product or service. However, using some manipulative tactics advertising poses some real harmful threats to our society.

Advertisements are displayed through many different sources like newspapers, magazines, internet, television, billboards etc. An average person come across hundreds of advertisements every single day.

The question is: “Are these advertisements deceptive in any way”?
Advertisements apart from their benefits, tend to create a negative impact on the mind set of people. It has adverse effects on children, teenagers and youth in particular. An individual’s environment has a direct influence on their attitude and behaviors; as such, the advertisements that are the part of this environment can alter and potentially damage the audience to which they are being exposed. It is important to note that negative advertisements not only bring upon a change in the mental thinking of a subject, but also influences the actions of that subject.

The objective of this research study is to study how the advertisements affect the moral and ethical attitude of its viewers.

Advertising is influencing our society in negative way due to its adverse impact on children, false images, misrepresentation and unrealistic expectations. It is causing damage to our culture and making our families money-producers and buyers.

WHAT ARE ADVERTISEMENTS?
Advertisements are a mean of communication with the general public to promote products or services. Advertisements are used to call public attention to something. The main purpose of advertisements is to persuade people to buy company’s products or services. In other words we can say that the actual promotion messages are called advertisements. Today in many countries advertisements are considered an important source of income for print and electronic media through which they are conducted.

TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENTS:
There are many types of advertisements present in today’s era. Few important ones are discussed below.

Print Media:
Print media is a traditional source of advertisements. Even in today’s digital era, some people still prefer newspapers and magazines over social sites. Hence print media is quite a reliable source of advertisements.

Radio And Podcasts:
Radio and Podcasts can be used as a platform for verbal promotion ads. You can record an advertisement to be played repeatedly on radio or podcasts.

Display Ads:
These can be called as an updated version of newspaper advertising. It is basically advertising on websites or apps or social media using banners or text, images, audio, video etc.

Social Media Ads :
Lot of social media sites offer relatively inexpensive advertising. For example: Facebook, Instagram, pinterest etc.

Outdoor Advertising :
Companies feature their products through billboards or on buses, taxis etc.

Event Marketing :
Some companies advertise their products by sponsoring a sports team or a charity event or some other kinds of events. This is called Event Marketing. Many people come to know about the brand name because of this type of marketing.

IMPACTS OF ADVERTISEMENTS:
Advertising is a double edged sword as it has merits as well as demerits. Advertising is a best way to let the consumer know about the product. They also provide platform to create awareness about different things among the general public. On the other hand, the growing volume of advertisements in our society is becoming a cause of mental illness among different people.

Importance of Advertisements:
Let us first discuss why advertisements are necessary:
Public Service Ads:
Through advertisements many public service announcements about health, safety and national security are made. Public service campaigns are run by our Government, NGO’s and private companies.

Awareness Campaigns:
Awareness about various products, their use, safe handling of dangerous goods and things like effective usage of petroleum, electricity etc is created among people using advertisements.

New Ideas:
Generally people are traditional. They are informed about development of latest technologies or latest researches through ads.

Social Changes:
Many social changes like Gender equality, women empowerment, awareness against
child labor, child marriages etc are consequences of Advertisements.
Quality Consciousness:
Concern for the quality of a product, process or even work, education etc is promoted with the help of advertisements.

HOW ADVERTISEMENTS ARE BECOMING A SOCIAL ISSUE:
“Advertisements do more harm than good”
The levels of advertising are just way too much these days. We cannot walk down the road, ride a bus, or watch television without seeing ads these days. People cannot just ignore these advertisements because advertisers use many sneaky methods to spread their message.Many posters have attention grabbing pictures or words. Although advertisements are used for many good purposes but the deceptive image of advertisements is making it a social issue disturbing the life of many people.

In 1957, in his book “Hidden Persuaders” Vance Packard exposed just how influential psychology and behavioral sciences were becoming to advertising agencies. In a review of Packard’s book, the New York Times explains that
“Advertisers were trying to puzzle out the reasons for impulsive and even self-destructive purchasing, then tailor images and packaging accordingly”.

Disrupting Our lives:
Many people don’t want to see ads every single time they load a website or on social media account. Waiting for a page to load on our phones because of the advertisements is very infuriating. Outdoor campaigns attack our eyes with their bright messages. Similarly ads may ruin any kind of website experience. These ads are constantly disrupting our lives making us exasperated.

Highlight your Flaws:
Ads basically highlight your flaws. They try to make people feel inferior if they don’t have the product, or if they have something which the product can change. How are you going to buy some beauty cream if you think that you are already beautiful? These ads manipulate your mind in such a way that you think that you would be happy if you buy that product.
Unrealistic Body image expectations:
Our self-image is definitely being affected. The standards of beauty set in advertisements are beyond ridiculous. Perception of beauty and fashion have been terribly distorted by these advertisements. Ads may not judge people but they are pressuring people. Advertisements pressure people to be beautiful, healthy, strong like the models shown in ads. Many young people have low self-esteem and unhealthy lifestyles because they think that they should be thinner or more attractive just like the models they see in advertisements. This leads to serious problems like eating disorders or self-harm.

Misrepresentation in ads:
Misrepresentation comes under false advertising. Misrepresentation incudes persuading the people to buy your product by describing such a characteristic or feature of the product that actually doesn’t exist in the product. For example if you are trying to sell a car by saying that it is in excellent condition when it is not quite good, this is called misrepresentation. Similarly, many companies try to sell their beauty products by giving a time limit: “You will get a fair skin within 7 days”, ignoring whether the results are temporary or permanent and even it may damage your skin. These kind of manipulative tactics used by advertising agencies cause problems for the general public.

Creating Unnecessary needs:
Most ads advertise those products that very few people need and also create a craving for them. Just think about it. Those things that people actually need to survive does not need any kind of advertisement, consumers are actually in quest of them. But when it comes to the “stuff” that we don’t need for survival but advertisements make them look like compulsory for our happiness. Unnecessary needs and desires are created in our hearts. Like people think “I will feel satisfy after buying that car” or “I will be completely happy with this diamond necklace” or “How could i even imagine to live without an iPhone?”. From new cars to latest mobile phones and the latest restaurants, advertising can literally make people yearn for something they didn’t even know they wanted a few seconds earlier.

Profit Makers:
Advertisers don’t think about the good of society when they are making ads, they only care about their own profit. This means that they advertise unhealthy or harmful things without any hesitation. For example fast food ads are the main cause why so many children are overweight these days. The advertiser area of concern is that children should eat as much fast food as possible regardless of any health costs.

Choices Overload:
One other problem is the competition between different products. There are so many choices among products that it causes confusion in the minds of people. Recent research suggest that people on average are less happy than they were 30 years ago despite being more luxurious and having much more choices of things to spend their money on. Choices overload increases expectations about a product and causes disappointment after it is bought. Consumers often regret the choice they made and regret not choosing something else.

Destroying Our Culture:
Every culture in the world undergoes some developmental stages. Every culture today is trying to mold itself into “A MODERN CULTURE”. The nub of the thousands of different stories they tell is that the only way to secure pleasure, popularity, security, happiness or fulfillment is through buying more things, more consumption-regardless of how much we already have and whether we need more or not. Results are very clear: In the race of becoming modern, we are losing our cultural morals, values, ethics and traditions.

Effect on Family:
These days, families have “consumerized”. Parents buy many things for themselves and for their kids. They buy clothes, toys, cellphones, computers and a wide variety of luxury goods. They are completely saturated in it because of what the watch and what they listen to in advertisements. And they can’t help it because it’s everywhere. It destroys the family because it becomes a family of money-producers and buyers; and not a family of cherishing, loving and caring.

Negative Impacts on Children:
According to a research, an average child is exposed to more than 40,000 advertisements per year. As far as advertising goes, one of the biggest
impact made on children is through television. Even the top researchers do not know exactly how these ads affect children. According to a recent study most of the children spend about 4.5 hours watching TV every single day. Although there are a lot of positive effects of advertisements on children like giving them information about many important topics and about their surroundings. But ads are causing some negative effects on children especially when parents are not careful. Studies have found that children do not have the ability to skeptically view marketing messages. In many cases, the messages in the ads are misinterpreted and as a result children have the wrong beliefs about many different issues. Advertising influence their mind in such a way that a need to get the product they see in ads is created in their minds. Parents who cannot handle their kids increasing demands or temper tantrums have a tendency to surrender to their children’s demands. As a result of which the child get addicted to the lifestyle shown in media.

Some other negative impacts on children due to ads are:
Children want to own everything they see in ads, whether they need it or not.

Many Studies have shown that children tend to focus on negative side rather than the positive side of the messages shown in ads. They also misinterpret the messages.

Many children want to try the dangerous stunts shown in TV because they are unable to understand the warnings that come with the ads.

Attractive junk food commercials causes adverse effects on children’s health. These kind of ads promote unhealthy eating which may lead to obesity, diabetes, blood pressure and heart diseases etc.

Sexually suggestive ads are everywhere these days. This causes children to objectify women disturbing their moral values.

With so many commercials, reality and fantasy do not seem too different, causing confusion among children, destroying their sense of reality.

WHAT IS THE SOLUTION?
Advertisements are a necessary component of any society. We cannot get rid of them completely. However, we can reduce the negative impacts of advertising by different ways such as:
Banning advertising to children.

Taxes on advertising.

Restricting new forms of advertising.

Ad agencies accountability system.

Reducing the emphasis on idealism and perfection.

CONCLUSION:
In conclusion, there is no argument that advertisements affect us in both positive and negative ways. Advertisements helps to create awareness among the general public about products, services and campaigns. Advertisements also manipulate us to think that we need everything that is being advertised for our survival. Advertisements are causing our culture and traditions to lose its value. However, in my opinion what could be expected in the long term is not the prohibition of advertising but a higher extent of regulation. In the end it is also up to us the general public to filter what is being presented to us and understand that not all advertisements are being presented with good or bad intentions.
REFERENCES:
“The Hidden Persuaders” Book by Vance Packard”The Distorted Mirror: Reflection on the Unintended Consequences of Advertising” Book by Richard Polly
“Kids Kostumers” by Eric Schlosser
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/advertisinghttps://www.britannica.com/topic/advertisinghttps://bizfluent.com/info-7736409-10-kinds-advertising.htmlhttps://lifehacker.com/how-advertising-manippulates-your-choices-and-spending-h-30812671https://www.fastcompany.com/3032675/5-psychological-tactics-marketers-use-to-influence-consumer-behaviorhttps://www.thebalancecareers.com/is-advertising-harmful-to-society-38971https://www.thebalancecareers.com/your-ten-biggest-advertising-gripes-4052234https://www.debate.org/opinions/is-advertising-harmful-to-ushttps://www.momjunction.com/articles/negative-side-effects-of-advertising-on-your-children_00385891/#grefhttps://smallbusiness.chron.com/negative-impacts-advertising-22146.htmlhttp://www.teenink.com/opinion/social_issues_civics/article/439977/Is-Advertising-Harmful-to-Society/https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/negative-political-campaigning-when-works-when-backfires/1395192https://debatewise.org/debates/2938-advertisements-do-more-harm-than-good/https://stopad.io/blog/manipulating-maslow-how-advertising-is-hijacking-our-heads-and-making-us-unhappyhttps://makewealthhistory.org/2011/10/27/reducing-the-negative-impact-of-advertising/https://www.coursehero.com/file/p31smm7/4-THE-EFFECTS-ADVERTISING-HAVE-ON-SOCIETY

Abstract: Authentication is a vital issue in framework control in PC based communication. Human face recognition is an imperative branch of verification in biometric

and has been broadly utilized as a part of numerous applications, for example, human-PC interaction, door control framework, system security and video screen

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framework.
This paper portrays a technique for Student’s Attendance System which will coordinate with the face recognition technology utilizing Personal Component Analysis (PCA)

algorithm. The framework will record the participation of the students in classroom consequently and it will give the facilities to the faculty to get to the data of

the students effortlessly by keeping up a log for check in and check out time.
Key Words: Face recognition system, automatic attendance, authentication, bio-metric, PCA.

1. INTRODUCTION

Face recognition has been the inspiration for research all over the world. The time period and interest of studies in this field is characterized of its esteem and

unpredictability, and has turned into an increasingly imperative type of biometric authentication. With the huge progressions in face recognition, more research ought

to be done to enhance the proficiency, basically and exactness of the numerous strategy created.

A genetic algorithm is been selected into face recognition for this project. Genetic algorithms are arranged as widespread inquiry heuristics. Genetic algorithm is

utilized as a part of computing as a technique for researches to locate the genuine or evaluated solutions for upgrade and investigate issues. It utilizes systems

roused by evolutionary biology for example mutation, inheritance, crossover and choice. Facial Recognition fulfills the accompanying attributes, which certified it for

biometric authentication (Jain, Ross, and Prabhkar, 2004). Universality (have trademark)

1. Distinctiveness (have diverse trademark)

2. Permanence (trademark won’t be change in periods)

3. Collectability (Threat estimating)

Face recognition began at after the machine turned out to be more clever and had the progress to enhance the capacities and sense of human (Hossein Sahoolizadeh,

2008). Purposes behind consideration on facial recognition technology: Applicability in different applications incorporating into law enforcement framework, security

frameworks and in content-based video processing framework. The framework is contactless and it does not require any client input. A contributing elements that

emphatically appearance of face recognition technology incorporates development of the advanced camera technology with competitive cost.

Biometrics is mostly utilized for authentication purposes and furthermore alludes to automatic recognition of an individual, “furnishing a right person with the

correct benefits, and the correct access at the perfect time”. Cases of specific applications include getting to developments, workstation frameworks, PC and PDAs.

By that, securities could approve a person’s identity relying upon “who she is”, and not “what she has” and “what she could recollect”. Determined by application

structure, biometrics framework works on two modes, verification and identification mode (Laha, 2008).

This research predominantly include performance of real-time face recognition for attendance monitoring framework. As more impel progressions are gotten by

organizations or universities, they are so far standing up to the issue of observing student attendance.

Many universities including CIU is so far getting a handle on the ordinary techniques for passing the attendance sheet around the class for recording. To conquer that

issue, this research showed a framework in which participation organization can be made automated by face recognition. Automated face recognition attendance monitoring

is to a great degree helpful in saving gainful time of the students and instructors.

3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

By executing the real-time face recognition attendance monitoring framework, the attendance can be more effectively recorded. The proposed framework updates the

attendance immediately the student face corresponds with the database template.

The proposed framework can recognize the client and reject the student in the event that they enter the wrong class or not in the right time. Face recognition for

attendance monitoring framework is produced by extracting captured image from the webcam.

Actualizing real-time face recognition for monitoring student attendance includes three stages, which incorporate face region detection, template extraction and face

recognition utilizing genetic algorithms. In the first stage, face detection region itself is grouped into four sub-stages, including image acquisition, face

detection, adjusting and cropping of face.

This framework is utilizing Principle Component Analysis method to deal with perceive face characteristic. PCA is utilized on account of its clarity. The framework

produces eigenface and does matching procedure by looking at the eigenface from the image captured with the image from the database template.

3.1 PCA (Principal Component Analysis PCA technique has been generally utilized in applications for example, face recognition and image reduction in volume. PCA is a

typical technique for discovering patterns in data, and expressing the data as eigenvector to feature the correspondence and contrasts between various data (Liu,

2000). The

following advances outline the PCA procedure.

1. Let {D1,D2,… DM} be the training data set. The normal Avg is characterized by:

2. Each component in the training data set contrasts from Avg by the vector Yi=Di-Avg. The covariance framework Cov is gotten as:

3. Choose M’ significant eigenvectors of Cov as EK’s, and process the weight vectors Wik for every component in the training data set, where k varies from 1 to

M’.

3.2 Image Acquisition

Face recognition for student attendance monitoring framework achieve images by interfacing a web camera where image is caputred with a computerized light sensor. Hence

it is sufficiently productive to utilize a webcam for face recognition framework. Webcam is associated with MATLAB build-in function “Video input” amid image

acquisition. After catching the images, the proposed framework continue to the picture pre-preparing stage.

The identified face is then pre-prepared by evacuating unwanted clamor and contrast is improved. The center pixel of the mask will then replace by median filter with

the middle estimation of every other pixel in the mask since median filter is a successful neighborhood averaging strategy.

Moreover, the median filter is likewise a successful strategy that can suppress disconnected clamor with sharp edges (Brunelli, 1993). Exactly, all pixels in the area

are replaced by a pixel with the median filter.

To upgrade the complexity, technique Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) is required. CLAHE is standard histogram adjustment and a speculation of

vigorous histogram adjustment (Shivram, 2010). Working of a small areas in the image, named tiles and not the entire images is primary the reason CLAHE was picked as

the contrast enhancement technique.

The contrast of each tile’s is enhanced independently and the neighboring tiles are jointed utilizing bilinear introduction to annul artificially induced boundaries.

Contrast is controlled to anticipate increasing commotions that represents in the image, particularly the homogenous territories (Aswini kumar mohanty, 2011). Face

image will then be cropped by the framework and do histogram equalization.

3.3 Feature Extraction

For feature extraction stages, the proposed framework utilized the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image matrix must be set as a beginning point for the PCA.

After the image matrixes are set, the mean of every data measurements is subtracted. The subtracted mean are the average from every measurement. Formula underneath

indicates how to calculate mean.

Figuring the covariance will be the subsequent stage. The Covariance formula is:

In the wake of ascertaining the covariance, framework will figure the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. Then pick the eigenvector of the segments form a feature

vector. lastly, an outcome from the product of row featuring vector and row data adjust will be the final data.

Row feature vector from the formula is the matrix with the eigenvectors in the transposed of columns and Row data change will be the adjust data transpose. Final data

be the final data set, which incorporate the the measurements in rows and data items in columns.

3.4 Matching Process

In this procedure, the extracted image is compared with the image in the database template. This procedure utilizes Euclidian Distance to figure the separation between

2 vectors of n components.

A coordinating score is created after the coordinating procedure. Coordinating score would be finished up contingent upon the limit score that have been set

previously.

3.5 Decision

After the general procedure, the proposed system demonstrates an outcome either acknowledged or dismissed based on the threshold. Student’s attendance is recorded if

the outcome coordinate amid the coordinating notifications. The system demonstrates the coordinating notification and record the ustudent attendance if the outcome is

coordinated. else, the system rejects the student by displaying the error message.

4. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS

Table 1: Euclidian Distance From System Testing Based On Different Environments

Average
Time / Lights Lights Successful Rate
Environments On Off

Day 1.25 1.67
to to 2.43
3.17 3.64

Night 1.48 1.50
to to 2.81
3.27 6.00
A few tests are directed to check the execution of the real-time face recognition for attendance monitoring system. The testing outcomes about have been tried and

taken from couple of various environment backgrounds. Fundamentally is amid the day and evening with lights either on or off. A testing table 1 is made underneath to

gather all the testing outcomes. There are a few student photographs tried in the table.

By creating this table, the researchers set the threshold for the proposed system based on the distinctive kind of environments.
In view of the table 1, the researchers pick the most reduced and the most astounding threshold score from all the diverse tried photographs. Table 2 underneath

demonstrates the scope of the threshold tested and a normal effective rate is concluded.

Table 2: Environments Testing Threshold (Euclidian Distance)

Student Day Day Night Night Lowest &
Tested Light Light Light Light Highest
Photos On Off On Off Rate
1.25
1.25 1.28 1.49 1.50 &
1.50

1.48
1.77 2.10 1.48 1.65 &
2.10

1.87
2.02 1.87 2.15 2.39 &
2.39

2.85
3.16 3.30 2.85 2.95 &
3.30

2.40
2.40 2.45 3.27 3.58 &
3.58

1.26
1.26 1.46 1.66 1.52 &
1.66

The researchers set the limit for the proposed face recognition system based on the output limit of the outcomes collected. Since the most elevated threshold in this

system tested is 4.9968, the limit in this framework is set not to be more than 6.00. The system only acknowledges the client beneath the threshold set and expressed

the client as a faker when the limit is more than the limit set.

Update the students’ attendances: Throughout the decision making, a threshold known as the minimum value is set. The client is recognized as an approved individual

when the coordinating score is same or less than the limit. On the opposite side, when the coordinating score is more than the limit, the client will be recognized as

an unapproved individual. Futhermore, the system verifies whether the individual is associated with that chose subject or not directly after the system perceived the

face. In the event that the chose subject corresponds, the system will automatically updates the attendace of the student’s in the database

5. CONCLUSION

This framework has been proposed for maintaining the attendance record. The aim behind building up this system is to dispose of the considerable number of

disadvantages which were related with manual participation framework. The downsides running from wastage of time and paper, till the intermediary issues emerging in a

class, will totally be dispensed with.

Consequently, desired outcomes with easy to understand interface is expected in the future, from the system. The effectiveness of the system could be expanded by

coordinating different advances and procedures later on creating phases of the system

Abstract:
The total efficiency of gravity settlers is usually calculated by taking the product of grade efficiency and weight fraction of particles over a series of particle size intervals and then summing them up. The design of this kind of devices is based on specifying the efficiency required for given size of particles. The accuracy of this method depends on number of particle size interval and width of individual intervals. There are over 30-35 units in operation in whole over United States, Mexico and South Africa.

Introduction:
Gravity Settlers are normally used for clarification or thickening. They operate with slow settling solids generally finer than 50 microns which a thickened slurry which can be pumped out of the equipment.

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This device is simply a particulate collection device using the principle of gravity to settle the particulate matter in a gas stream passing through its long chamber. The primary requirement of this device is a chamber in which the carrier gas velocity is lessened so as to allow the particulate matter to settle out of the moving gas stream under the action of gravity.

Formulation of model:
Lets consider a stationary elemental volume of unit area (L × W) and Thickness within the dispersion band, at a height z above the passive interface and at an arbitrary distance from the settler inlet. Characterizing the size of the drops in the band by their volume (v) a balance for the number of drops over the stationary volume element can be written as:
No. of drops of size v to (v + dv) entering the element per unit time- No. of drops of size v to (v + dv) leaving the element per unit time- No. of drops of size v to v + dv disappearing by drop-drop× coalescence within the element per unit time+ No. of drops of size v to v + d v appearing by drop-drop× coalescence within the element per unit time = 0
Design:
Lamella gravity settler is a sedimentation unit. The most significance of its design is its settling area. It is basically an inclined plane with a shallow depth. Using series of inclined parallel plates can reduce required area. When compared to conventional clarifier, it uses 20% of area but provides same total effective area. Rule of thumb method was used previously to design horizontal gravity settlers but it resulted in higher than necessary capital costs. Now a simplified design procedure has been developed which is more accurate than rule of thumb method and require no trial and error calculations.

Types:
Gravity settler has three basic types as follows
1) Thickener
2) Clarifier
3) Lamella
Thickener:
Conventional Circular Thickener is simple but very large. It contains a central feed well for introducing the feed slurry.The top of the thickener acts as a clarifier and the clarified liquid overflows a peripheral weir at the top.

A rake in the bottom consolidates the thickened solids and moves them towards a central outlet where they are pumped out.

The floor usually has a shallow slope towards the outlet but some have flat bottom. Gravity thickeners have a long residence time so they consume large area. Long residence means they accept short term fluctuation in feed slurry.

Underflow may contain 20-60% solids and thickeners may contain 5-20% solids.

Other designs such as lamella thickener and tray thickener are designed to reduce equipment size.

Clarifier:
A clarifier is generally used to remove solid particles and suspended particulates from liquid for clarification or thickening.

Circular clarifier is same as circular thickeners but with lighter rakes because of less concentrated slurry. Spirals at the bottom consolidates the thickened solids and moves them out through central outlet. Conventional clarifiers may be operated without or with flocculants. Overflow quality can be improved by ensuring efficient fluctuation.

Lamella:
A lamella also known as inclined plate separator can be used both of thickener and clarifier to remove particulates from liquids.

Unlike conventional sedimentation equipment, they use series of inclined plates. They provide a large effective area for small footprints. Solid particles begin to settle on plates and begin to accumulate in collection hoppers at bottom of clarifier. The clarified liquid exits the unit at the top of weir and sludge is then drained from the bottom of hopper. The main advantage of lamella clarifiers over other clarifying systems is the large effective settling area caused by the use of inclined plates, which improves the operating conditions of the clarifiers in a number of ways. The unit is more compact usually requiring only 65-80 % of the area of clarifiers operating.

Working principle:
Gravity settlers are the oldest and simplest means of removing suspended particles from a gas. In principle, pollutants are removed by reducing the velocity of the gas stream sufficiently to allow particles to settle out under the influence of gravity. High efficiency settling chambers are often fitted with baffles or deflectors to change the gas flow direction.

Applications:
The advantages of gravity settler is stated as follows:
1) useful for large particulates that are greater than almost 50micrometers.

2) Low energy cost.

3) Low capital cost.

ABSTRACT:
The administration of oxytocic drugs during caesarean section is an important intervention to prevent uterine atony or treat established postpartum hemorrhage. Considerable past and current research has shown that these agents have a narrow therapeutic range. A detailed knowledge by anesthetists of optimal doses and side effects is therefore required. Oxytocin remains the first line agent. In view of receptor desensitization, second line agents may be required, namely ergot alkaloids and prostaglandins. This review examines the adverse hemodynamic and side effects, and methods for their limitation. An approach to dosing and choices of agent for the limitation of postpartum hemorrhage is suggested.

Objective:
Uterine atony, is a serious condition that can occur after childbirth. It occurs when the uterus fails to contract after the delivery of the baby, and it can lead to a potentially life-threatening condition known as postpartum hemorrhage .The objective of drugs are used to treat this condition and save the thousands life of children and mother. It was the life threaten many decades ago but the use of life saving drugs such as oxytocin,mesoprostol,prostaglandin, ergot alkaloids and carbetosin, syntometoine can save may live.

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Introduction:
Every year 166 000 women die of obstetric hemorrhage and more than 50% of these deaths occur insub-Saharan Africa.1 Uterine atony is the commonestcause of severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), as tragically described by Hemingway. Consequently the administration of uterotonic drugs during caesarean section(CS) has become essential to diminish the risk ofPPH and improve maternal safety. These agents havea narrow therapeutic range in terms of maternal morbidity.The exact dose, route and rate of administrationare therefore important, as well as a detailed knowledgeof their pharmacology.Central to the mechanism of the contraction of uterinesmooth muscle during labour, which is enhanced bythe action of oxytocin, is the enzyme myosin light chainkinase (MLCK). Intracellular calcium, the levels ofwhich are controlled by voltage and receptor operatedchannels and by release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum,is bound to calmodulin and stimulates conversionof MLCK-P to MLCK, which in turn phosphorylatesmyosin and initiates smooth muscle contraction

Classification of drugs used in uterine atony:
Uterus stimulants:
I. Posterior pituitary hormone: Oxytocin, desamino oxytocin
II. Ergot alkaloids: Ergometrine, Methyl ergometrine
III. Prostaglandins: PGE2, PGF2A,pge1
General uses of drugs used in uterine atony:
Uterus stimulants:
I. Oxytocin causes the stimulants of contraction of uterine fundus.
II. It avoids postpartum hemorrhage.
III. It is also used for labour augmentation and induction.
IV. Prostaglandins cause the initiation of labour at term and also for pre term labours and enhances the contractions and ripening of cervix.
V. Ergot alkaloids induces titanic contraction of uterus.
VI. It causes contraction of uterus as a whole. (fundus and cervix)
Side effects of drugs used in uterine atony:
I. Nausea
II. Vomiting
III. Diarrhea
IV. Hypertension because of contraction of blood vessels
V. Vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels which leads to Gangrene.

Oxytocin:
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. It plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction in both sexes, and during and after childbirth. Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream as a hormone in response to stretching of the cervixand uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples from breastfeeding.This helps with birth, bonding with the baby, and milk production. Oxytocin was discovered by Henry Dale in 1906. Its molecular structure was discovered in 1952. Oxytocin is also used as a medication to facilitate childbirth.

? What is it: oxytocin is a non-peptide hormone released in pulses from the posterior pituitary and is the basis of Syntocin and Syntocinon.
? Drug Indication: Used for labor induction, augmentation of labor, postpartum abbreviation of third stage of labor, postpartum control of uterine bleeding, termination of pregnancy and for the evaluation of fetal respiratory capability. Oxytocincannot be used for elective induction of labor, there must be a clear medical requirement.
? What does it do: It has a number of roles including stimulating contraction of myometrium and myo-epithelium of the mammary ducts, and influencing maternal behaviour.
? How does it act: Uterine motility depends on the formation of the contractile protein actomyosin under the influence of the Ca2+-dependent phosphorylating enzyme myosin light-chain kinase. Oxytocin promotes contractions by increasing the intracellular Ca2+, which in turn activates myosin’s light chain kinase.. Oxytocin has specific receptors in the muscle lining of the uterus and the receptor concentration increases greatly during pregnancy, reaching a maximum in early labor at term.
Activation of oxytocin receptors (OTR), in common with many other agonists, causes the activation of phospholipase-C ? (PLC?), which hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) leading to the formation of two second messengers: IP3 and diacylglycerol (DAG). Both messengers are thought to be involved in mediating the many cellular responses to oxytocin. IP3 stimulates calcium release from the SR, whilst DAG, the main activator of Protein Kinase C (PKC) may or may not affect myometrial tension. Using a variety of experimental approaches, we and others have shown that stimulation of Ca entry is the most prominent effect of oxytocin. Oxytocin also inhibits Ca efflux mechanisms. Oxytocin may also inhibit MLCP, slowing relaxation and enhancing force. Thus via a variety of mechanisms oxytocin has powerful stimulatory effects which have long been used clinically to aid parturition. During pregnancy, OTRs increase in number which is thought in part to underlie the increased sensitivity of the myometrium to oxytocin at term when little change in oxytocin levels can be detected. Antagonists to OTR have been developed as tocolytics and are discussed later.
? Clinical uses
The first clinical use of oxytocin was by Blair Bell in 1909, to stop post-partum haemorrhage. Oxytocin is now used widely in its synthetic forms, for labour augmentation and induction. Syntocin/Syntocinon is also administered during CS to cause a large contraction for stemming bleeding. Clinically, continuous iv infusion of oxytocin may not be optimal, as it does not replicate its natural pulsatile release and may also cause receptor desensitization and down regulation of OTR mRNA. Indeed, responses to administration of oxytocin are variable, and a pulsatile application of oxytocin has been shown to be more efficient than constant oxytocin infusion to induce labour. Even so it remains perplexing why up to 50% of women labouring poorly, do not respond to oxytocin administration and ultimately require CS, although difference in background acidity and lactate have recently been suggested. Thus dysfunctional labour remains a major contributor to the non-elective CS rate and oxytocin has not reduced this rate. More work is required to understand the causes of dysfunctional labour, so that they can either be prevented or remedied by additional agents.
Administration of oxytocin is not without risk; uterine hyperstimulation or rupture and foetal distress, Thefoetal distress arises as the over-contracted myometrium occludes blood vessels and diminishes placental perfusion. Thus the effects of administration of oxytocin in cases of poor/slow progress in the first stage of labour should always be carefully monitored and maximal doses, which are usually higher in primigravidae, not exceeded. In order to achieve successful labour induction with oxytocin, the cervix must be favourable.

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