This study that explores the effects of servant leadership on employee`s job satisfaction, environment and the attitude of employees, whether perceived organization support as a mediator. Build a model that consists of five theories, namely, servant leadership as the independent variable, satisfaction, environment and attitude with the leader as a measure variable, organizational support perceived as situational variables. The relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction, attitude and environment is also mediated by perceived organization support. With these results, this study contributes to the investigation demonstrating that leadership has direct and mediating effects on the attitudes and behavior of employees. Servant leadership is a growing problem in leadership literature. The first is particularly noteworthy because if the servant leadership predicts central self-assessment, this would confirm that service leadership influences the important changes of employees as people, a central tenet of servant leadership. In addition, on the leadership of the servers predicts the central self-assessment, this can be added to the question of whether the self-assessment is a personality trait that cannot be modified or is potentially formable.
Servant leadership is not a novel indication; it stays a principle for numerous religions and of Lau Tzu, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and many others (Valeri, 2007). In modern times, in business, he began with Robert Greenleaf’s (1970) article, “The Servant as a Leader,” and his following conception of a center to promote and teach this form of leadership (Spears, 1995). The underlying perception is that there is a variety of leadership values that series from those who are primarily servants to leaders. The difference lies in the values and correlated actions of the leaders. The best leaders tend to create greater roles and profits for themselves and their organizations. Transactional and authoritarian leaders are such styles of leadership (Bass, 1985). These leaders tend not to rely on employees’ desire to do their jobs well. They tend to transmit a clear command code, motivate the use of rewards and punishments, closely monitor the behavior and production of work, and expect employees to follow orders without many questions. The Office’s theory (Jensen and Meckling, 1976) conforms to this point of view, since many of these types of leaders tend to confuse the lines between personal and organizational success and sometimes choose the latter first. This vision also assumes that followers can focus more on personal and organizational gains, and without supervision and supervision, followers will often do so. Leaders: leader leaders of leaders (from top to bottom, of a dominant nature over others) have been the most common stakes in organizational leadership over the centuries (Weber, 1964) The values of these leaders include that leaders are the main people who have ideas and that employees need supervision and extrinsic motivation. Although the first servant leaders also work to achieve organizational success, they mainly emphasize the growth and well-being of their followers and communities. Spears (1995) and others consider the following characteristics of the servant leaders: listening, empathy, healing, conscience, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, management, commitment to the growth of others and the construction of the community. Servant leaders tend to emphasize vision, integrity, honesty, trust, service, modeling, pioneering work, appreciation and empowerment of others (Russell and Stone, 2002). These attributes and behaviors “… arise from the fundamental values and convictions of individual leaders” (Russell and Stone, 2002). Several leadership styles share some of the traits and values of servant leaders. For example, transformational leaders give their followers individualized consideration (support, encouragement), motivate them by articulating a clear vision and stimulating their intellectual stimulation (challenge, creativity, learning) (Bass, 1985). Authentic leaders are self-aware, drive with their hearts and lead more in the long term, allowing them to worry about the growth of their followers (Kruse, 2013). Ethical leaders emphasize the following core values, a vision that includes service to others, the practice of virtuous behavior and the animation and motivation of others through these practices (Center for Ethical Leadership, 2014). Server leaders go beyond the other styles of leaders by emphasizing the development and well-being of their followers as whole people, not just professionally (Rafferty and Griffin, 2006). Although they are not emphasized in current service command instruments, servant leaders should also try to be beneficial to society. Athletes in sports events are one of the essential human elements that contribute to high-quality gaming experiences for participants and spectators (Cuskelly ; Hoye, 2013). Judges must remain strongly concentrated and share other decisions during a match. Their performance in the field can affect the outcome of games (ÇoBan, 2010; Dell, Gervis, ; Rhind, 2014). However, it has been challenging to recruit enough quality judges for sports events. For example, the England Football Association has a hard time recruiting sufficient high-quality judges for school-level matches to professional levels (Brackenridge, Pitchford, ; Wilson, 2011). This problem also occurs in South Korea. According to the Korean Football Association (2016), there were 6,023 active judges in 2016. However, less than 10% were level 1 and international judges, indicating a difficult number of people of top quality football judges in South Korea. This phenomenon can be attributed to the high turnover rate of early career judges (Cuskelly ; Hoye, 2013; Dell et al., 2014). Many judges quit or leave their career before becoming highly qualified judges. Given the important role played by the judges in sporting events and persistent lack of top-quality judges, it is imperative to understand factors that influence the judges’ sales interest, thus retaining this important human resource in sporting events. So far, however, there has been much less research on empirical investigation of the organizational behavior of sportsmen (Cuskelly & Hoye, 2013; Kim, 2017). Therefore, this study proposed a framework for investigating the impact of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and career involvement for the football judges’ sales interest. Others strive to reach their potential and create a shared vision (Page and Wong, 2000). In this aspect, emphasizing the sharing of power and the dimension of the service of leadership emerged a style of leadership called “servant leadership” (Greenleaf, 1977, 2002, 1996, 2015). In fact, Robert K. Greenleaf proposed for the first time the leadership of the servants in 1970 Page and Wong (2000) defined the style of leadership as “a leader whose primary purpose is to serve others by investing in their development and well- for the benefit of tasks and objectives for the common good “. According to Greenleaf (1996), service leadership is defined as “a greater service to others, a holistic approach to work, a sense of community, and the sharing of power in decision making”. Lead leaders serve strong supportive relationships with all employees and members of the group (Greenleaf, 1996). They also influence employees to show positive emotions and behaviors (Dann Hauser, 2007). Therefore, the leadership of the servants promotes emotional health, organizational wisdom and self-determination. Likewise, when leaders show a positive performance, such as employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness perceptions (Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002).Developed the concept of serving leadership as defined below: The Servant leader is the first servant… Begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, serve first. So conscious choice leads to striving to drive … The best test, and difficult to manage is this: Those who need to grow as people?
Are they, while they are served, healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous and more inclined to become self-employed?
And, what is the effect on her at least privileged in society?
Will they be able to benefit, or at least not be further damaged?
Numerous studies on the guide of servants have been conducted in the literature. In these studies, in general, the relationship between the style of leadership of the servants and the attitudes and behaviors of the employees was studied. In the meantime, some studies have focused on the antecedents of the leadership of the servants as conscientiousness (Krekeler, 2010, Hunter et al., 2013), agreeableness (Krekeler, 2010) and extraversion (negatively) traits (Hunter et al., 2013). Service leadership influences a wide range of positive organizational results, such as the behavior of organizational citizenship (Uri San? et al., 2013, Vondey, 2010; Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002), help behavior and sales, service climate (Hunter et al., 2013), exchange of guiding members (Dal e Çorbac?o?lu, 2014, Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002), quality of service (Demirel et al., 2013), psychological health of employees (Rivkin et al., 2014), employee satisfaction (Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002); Washington, 2007), organizational identification of the person and organization (Vondey, 2010) and organizational effectiveness (Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002), organizational commitment (Washington, 2007, Rimes, 2011), individual performance (Uru San? et al ., 2013) conflict management styles (collaborative, accommodating and compromising) (Orlan and DiNatale-Svetnicka, 2013) and other performance measures (Barbuto and Wheeler, 2002). On the other hand, some studies have found a negative relationship between the leadership of the servants and some negative variables, as strategies for managing competitive and avoidant conflicts (Orlan and DiNatale-Svetnicka, 2013), emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (work tension). , exhaustion of the ego and need for recovery (indicators of the daily level of tension) (Rivkin et al., 2014), intentions and disengagement of turnover (Hunter et al., 2013).
Perceived organization support
Based on the theory of organizational support, perceived organizational support (POS) has been defined as “a person’s global beliefs about the extent to which the organization cares about their well-being and evaluates their contributions” (Eisenberger, Armeli, Rexwinkel, Lynch, ; Rhoades, 2001, P. 501). Furthermore, it was found that the POS is closely related to the various employee outcomes, such as commitment, satisfaction, performance and intention to leave. For example, Kim (2017) identified the POS as a critical antecedent of the commitment and satisfaction of sports officials. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 167 studies found that POS has a strong positive influence on employee engagement and satisfaction and a strong negative impact on employees’ intention to leave (Riggle, Edmondson, & Hansen, 2009). However, research that thoroughly examines the influence of the POS on career engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intent is low. Job satisfaction, defined as “a comfortable affective state resulting from an assessment of how experienced work situations meet their needs, values and expectations” (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984, p. 72) is perhaps the most common discussion topic in organizational behavior, as individuals with higher Levels of work satisfaction can contribute to many positive behavioral outcomes (eg achievement or commitment) (Chiu, Cho, & Won, 2014; ÇoBan, 2010). The level of satisfaction reflects an individual’s response to the extent that athletic experience meets his expectations (Dawis ; Lofquist, 1984). Commitment at the workplace refers to an employee psychological attachment to an organization (Allen ; Meyer, 1990). In the literature on organizational behavior, commitment has been one of the most frequently studied subjects in addition to job satisfaction, as engagement is considered to be an important factor in maintaining the careers of the individual (Harman, Lee, Mitchell, Felps ; Owens, 2007). The relationship between satisfaction and commitment is one of the most commonly studied relationships in the literature on organizational management. A positive relationship between satisfaction and commitment is widely recognized and empirically confirmed by many studies across different domains (eg Porter, et al., 1974; Boles et al., 2007; Chiu, Cho, ; Won, 2014). Furthermore, the intent of the turnover was defined as the intent of a person to leave an organization or stop working (Sager, Griffeth, ; Hom, 1998). Turnover has long been a critical issue in the literature on organizational behavior and can lead to serious negative consequences for an organization (Wells ; Peachey, 2011). Many studies have reported an individual’s satisfaction and commitment are the two most important predictors of that person’s turnover intention (Aydogdu ; Asikgil, 2011; Tett ; Meyer, 1993). Although the relationship between satisfaction, commitment and intention of turnover has been explored in the existing literature, it has not been empirically examined with regard to sports referees. Perceptive organizational support theory is closely related to Blau’s (1964) social exchange theory (Aselage and Eisenberger, 2003). In other words, these two theories span the exchange ratio between employee and employer relationship. Perceived organizational support (POS) is defined as “employee general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares for their well-being” (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). As understood from this definition, POS is associated with the employees themselves and their contribution in organizational eyes. According to the POS theory, the emergence of POS is related to employees’ inclination to encourage the human characteristics of the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Rhoades and Eisenberger (2002) categorized in their meta-analyzes POS’antecedents into three general subdivisions, namely justice, welfare support and organizational rewards and working conditions. Justice emphasizes the role of procedural justice among employees POS (Shore and Shore, 1995; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). According to the perception, the worker’s procedural justice is one of the drivers for POS. In other words, if employees perceive the allocation of resources as fair, employees’ POS will be affected positively. On the other hand, wrist support also has a significant effect on POS. As previously mentioned, because role models affect the followers (Mayer et al., 2009, 2010, Picollo et al., 2010; Demirtas and Akdo?an, 2014; Demirtas, 2015); and because supervisors have authority on subordinates to evaluate their performance and assign data (Eisenberger et al., 1986, Levinson, 1965), they have a significant role in employee’s POS. Similarly, organizational rewards and working conditions refer to campaigns, role stressors, occupational safety, autonomy, training identification and pay etc. (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). In view of these explanations, it is easy to say that there are many leading, organizational and individual factors related to POS
After commenting, Rhoades and Eisenberger ‘(2002) in their modern research, POS is related to some personal and organizational results. At any age, POS is closely associated with contentment and optimism. However, at the age of the organization is closely related to work, subjection, and sexual immorality. In addition to the study, Eisenberger et al. (1986) found a good relationship between POS and the employee, as well as the link between POS and the availability. Wu and Liu (2014) have found a good relationship between POS, and the behavior of organizational citizens and organizational dedication. Alpkan et al. (2010) to find out the results of the party’s support for new initiatives and to reduce the social impact of this relationship. Their findings show that the organization’s organization is closely linked with the capital and the new jobs. Shanock and Eisenberger (2006) found a positive relationship between POS (POS supervisor, subordinate POS) and performance (in-role performance and extra-role performance). Y?ld?z et al. (2015c), in their moderate mediation model, have studied the moderating effect of the POS on the relationship between risk taking and network construction. Their results show that risk-prone employees are more inclined to develop networking to show innovative constructive behaviors in the workplace when the perceived level of organizational support is low. Previous studies also indicate that POS is positively correlated with extra-role behaviors (Chen et al., 2009), procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior (Moorman et al., 1998; Wayne et al., 1997; Wayne, 1993), exchange of members of the leader (Erdo?an et al., 2004), emotional commitment (Wayne et al., 1997; Shore and Wayne, 1993), organizational commitment, job satisfaction, practices of human resources support, participation decision-making, fairness of premiums and growth opportunities (Allen et al., 2003). Naturally, POSs are also negatively related to some results, such as withdrawal behaviors (Allen et al., 2003). In addition to these studies, Erdogan and Enders (2007) studied the effect of POS moderation on the relationship between LMX and the LMX job satisfaction report. Their findings show that high-level POS plays a moderating role in both the LMX job performance report and the LMX job satisfaction report. Shore and Wayne (1993) point out that POS leads to the feeling of obligation that contributes to the emergence of extra-role behaviors.In light of the aforementioned studies, the POS is one of the predictors of recalling positive outcomes. The explanation of the social exchange of Blau (1964) and the social learning perspective of Bandura (1977, 1986) suggest that the attitudes and behaviors of the employees are the results of their perceptions, the exchange relationships with others and try to emulate models of behavior. According to these theories, because the employees’ perceptions of leadership are a positive source of positive results, and because psychological property is supposed to result from the leadership perceptions of serving followers, we propose that servant leadership: the psychological relationship of ownership will be more strong when perceived organizational support is high.