Abstract: The report of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) has placed CPS on the top of the priority list for federal research investment 6. This article first reviews some of the challenges and promises of CPS, followed by an articulation of some specific challenges and promises that are more closely related to the Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous and Trustworthy Computing Conference.

1. Introduction

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The Internet has made the world “flat” by transcending space. We can now interact with people and get useful information around the globe in a fraction of a second. The Internet has transformed how we conduct research, studies, business, services, and entertainment. However, there is still a serious gap between the cyber world, where information is exchanged and transformed, and the physical world in which we live. The emerging cyber-physical systems shall enable a modern grand vision for societal-level services that transcend space and time at scales never possible before.

Two of the greatest challenges of our time is global warming coupled with an energy shortage, and the rapid aging of a significant fraction of the world’s population with the related chronic diseases that threaten to bankrupt healthcare services, such as Medicare, or to dramatically cut back medical benefits.

During the meeting of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development in Beijing on March 29, 2006, George David1 noted: “More than 90 percent of the energy coming out of the ground

is wasted and doesn’t end as useful. This is the measure of what’s in front of us and why we should be excited.” Buildings and transportation are sectors with heavy energy consumption. During the NSF CDI Symposium (September 5-6, 2007) at RPI, Class A. Jacobson2 noted that green buildings hold great promises. Energy used in lightening and cooling buildings is estimated at 3.3 trillion KWh. Technologically, it is possible to reach the state of Net Zero Energy Buildings, where 60-70% efficiency gains required for reducing demand and balance to be supplied by renewable. However, to reach the goal of net-zero energy buildings, we must tightly integrate the cyber world and the physical world. He noted that in the past the science of computation has systematically abstracted away from the physical world and vice versa. It is time to construct a Hybrid Systems Science that is simultaneously computational and physical, providing us with a unified framework for robust design flow with multi-scale dynamics and with integrated wired and wireless networking for managing the flows of mass, energy, and information in a coherent way.

According to the Department of Energy, the transportation share of the United States’ energy use reached 28.4% in 2006, which is the highest share recorded since 19703. In the United States, passenger and cargo airline operations alone required 19.6 billion gallons of jet fuel in 2006. According to Time4, 88% of all trips in the U.S. are by car. Work-related needs including daily work commute and business travel is a significant fraction of the transportation cost. Telepresence research seeks to make all

Abstract:
The Project Cost Management in (ITPM) is the process of the project cost or project budget. Project Cost management is the financial planning of any project or business. That how much cost will be complete our project and our business. Cost management is includes processes required to complete the project within the approved budget. The scope of the project cost management is also considered in project and when we start our any project or any business, first of all we measures our budget, that how much we have budget and which project or which business will be complete in this budget. After measuring our budget we initiate or project with different phases of the project or the business that which things or which components are the important for our project or for our business. In project cost management, there can be a risk generated when we purchase any product but that product not selling in good price because of high price or because of low product. In Project Cost Management we compare it in three phases which are the Project Cost Estimating, Project Cost Budget, and Project Cost Control. For completing or making a good project/business we want to work on these phases. In this project I survey one the business man’s shop for getting knowledge that how he/she start his/her business. In this assignment I also survey the one of the shop and also asked queries from that business man that how he develop or increase his business in his limited budget.

Introduction:
The Project Cost Management in Project Management is the is the financial planning of any project or business. The Project Cost Management in (ITPM) is the process of the project cost or project budget. Cost management is includes processes required to complete the project within the approved budget. and when we start our any project or any business, first of all we measures our budget, that how much we have budget and which project or which business will be complete in this budget. After measuring our budget we initiate or project with different phases of the project or the business that which things or which components are the important for our project or for our business. The project cost management means that manage all the components of the project or business in measured budget. The project cost management working on three phases. This completes the project cost management for good project/good business.
The project cost management is very important in project management because when we start any project or any business, first of all we measure or budget that how much we have budget. When we complete our budget after that we work on that project or that business which complete in our measured budget. The project cost management is very important for any project or business because of the cost management we can manage our project or business components in a limited budget.
In Project Cost Management there can be risk like we purchase a product and sell it to the customer but because of the high price the customer cannot purchase it and at that time that product is risky for us. And we sell it in low price.

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Phases of the Project Cost Management:

Project Cost Estimating:

In Project Cost Estimating is the process that how much can be cost for completing the project activities. Project Cost Estimating is the process of predict the quantity, cost and the price of the resources required by the scope of the project. In Project Cost Estimating we gather all the components of the project or the business that which components or which materials are important for our project or for our business. That all useful things which come in making process of the project are gather and after gathering we calculate the prices of that components or materials.

Project Cost Budgeting:

In Project Cost Budgeting is the tool to estimate costs and needed efforts for the project or business. When we complete the process of the project cost estimating and gather all the components after that we determined the project cost budget for these allover processes. The project cost budgeting is the budget of the project that we have a limit of the budget like Rs: 700000/= (seven lacs). We enlist all the components and that all components should be purchase in under of that price. The project cost budgeting is managing and controlling the cost for the project and business.

Project Cost Control:

Project Cost Control also is the process of the cost management. This process mainly aims to control the project fixed cost and complete the project on determined budget. The cost control is the task of the allover seeing and managing project expenses and preparing for possible financial risk. The project cost control is control the allover budget of the any project or business. It maintains our budget which we are use in our project. When we estimate the cost and make the cost budget of the project, after that the cost control manage these two processes and also manage our budget.

Risk in Project Cost Management:

There are many risks can be created in the project cost management. And for managing good project or business we want to face these risks. The main risks in project cost management are:
Cost risk is the risk that the project cost comes to more than budget.

If we have budget of Rs: 700000, and our project and business will complete in nearby 10 lacs. That is also risk for our project.

It can be lead to performance risk if cost overruns lead to decrease in quality.

Our project cannot be successful, if we not make it in good way or in good quality/product.

Cost risk also lead to timetable risk if the timetable is extended because not sufficient finances are available to complete the project on time.

Work Breakdown Structure of Project Cost Management:

Survey of Agriculture Shop:
I did the survey of one of the agriculture shop. And asked many questions from him about his business and also saw his shop and all the products which he is selling in his shop. He tell me all about his business and I asked questions like that:

Cost Management:

Q#1: How much overall budget you have? When you start your business?
Ans: when I was start my business, at that time I have a budget of nearby 15, 000, 00 (fifteen lacs). I think that what type of business is comes in my budget, and then I start my planning about my business.

Q#2: How much materials are available in your shop and how much quantity?
Ans: there in my shop you find many types of materials and product, we purchase product on in accordance of the seasons. In a season of Wheat we purchase medicines and materials of the wheat. And in the season of the Cotton, we purchase the medicines and materials of the Cotton. We also purchase medicines and materials for the Rice, vegetables, fruits and Grass.
Q#3: From where you purchase materials and products?
Ans: we purchase our materials and product from the shop of Whole sale, we purchase from there in good price and they also deliver us good product and good medicines materials. And our customers also believe on real and good product.
Q#4: What types of customers come on your shop?
Ans: we have different types of customers like: landlord customers, skilled (tekkedaar) customers, other shopkeepers of land fertilizers and also the Harry customers. But they all are customers are equal for us.
Q#5: what are your monthly incomes comes from you’re this Shop?
Ans: our monthly income is not fixed, sometimes we earn from the shop medicines and material and sometimes in seasons we earn good. Our monthly income is sometimes increasing and sometimes decreases.
Quality:
Q#6: how you maintain the quality?
Ans: I maintain the quality with the good product purchasing from the upper level companies and I purchase that type of product which customers like and using more. I took many products which are best for the land Because of the good quality customers comes to my shop.
Q#7: how much you spend on maintain the quality?
Ans: for maintaining the quality I spend on the quality of that product which is useful for the land. Because customers focus on the good product and I also maintain the quality with the good product.
Risk:
Q#8: How you manage the damage product?
Ans: That is a big risk for me when my product is damaged. At that time i return it to that company from where i purchased it. If they didn’t take it back then i have to sell that product in fixed or less price.
Time Management:
For time management: some customers which purchase product from us on loan. We give that a person a fixed time for returning back that loan on given time. And we have some products that have an expiry date. I also sell it before coming of the expiry date of that product.

Conclusion:
In the last we learn all about the project cost management. That how to start business or project? How maintain the good business or project? The project cost management is very important in project management because when we start any project or any business, first of all we measure or budget that how much we have budget. When we complete our budget after that we work on that project or that business which complete in our measured budget. The project cost management is very important for any project or business because of the cost management we can manage our project or business components in a limited budget. The project cost management working on three phases. This completes the project cost management for good project/good business. Those are the cost estimating, cost budget and the cost control.

ABSTRACT:
In the existing world, the INTERNET is considered as one of the keys to communication. With the use of increase in the internet, transmission is made easier which made us use the internet as a foundation for communication. When we are communicating through the internet, protecting our information is very important. Although we can protect our information from an unauthorized user in many ways, Researchers have come up with a new technology called QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY which is used to send secure data by applying laws of Quantum Physics. It has achieved the cons of traditional cryptography. Quantum cryptography is going to be future of privacy. In this survey paper, we are going to discuss BB84 protocol used in Quantum cryptography.
INTRODUCTION:
To prevent unauthorized users from gaining the access to our private information, we use cryptography to turn our original data into an unreadable format. To provide privacy, we use a key for encoding and decoding of our information by using a key called Secret Key. Quantum cryptography uses Quantum Key Distribution which uses light to send information using a wonderful law of Quantum Mechanics 4. It is considered as one of the most remarkable technology in cryptography. In future, the modern computers may soon be replaced by Quantum Computers which is considered to be most secure in present technology.
Classical cryptography:
This type of cryptography is used to send messages secretly. In this, for the purpose of encoding and decoding of messages bits are used. The major problem in classical cryptography is considered to be Key Distribution. There are two types of cryptosystems: Symmetric Key Cryptography knew as Traditional Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptosystem.
(1) Symmetric Cryptography:
In this, we use the same key for both encryption and decryption

Fig 1.0 Symmetric key Encryption 4

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(2) Asymmetric Cryptography:
In this, we use two different keys, one for encryption one for decryption

Fig 2.0 Asymmetric Key Encryption 4
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY:
No secret would be safe, but the researchers have come up with a new cryptography called as QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY-which is not only hard to break but may be impossible to break. This works by hiding the data in photons of light particles. The key of this cryptography is a stream of photons of light particles. In this, we use Qubits which are used to carry a unit of quantum data. We use Qubits as they possess special properties which help us to solve complex problems. The main motto of using this Quantum Cryptography is we can detect the presence of third-party when two users are communicating with each other, which is considered as the major advantage. This cryptography uses Quantum mechanics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and photon polarization.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle:
This principle states that it is not possible to locate the position of an atom when it is traveling through space. This statement was given by a German physicist Werner Heisenberg in 1927. As per Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and we cannot measure the state of the photon, without disturbing the system.
Polarization of Photon:
The principle of this is, it won’t allow the eavesdropper to copy the data of Qubits as we are using non-cloning theorem. Photon Polarization can be described as converting the unpolarized light into polarized light in a specified direction of our own. These photons have a special property called spin which will change when they are passed through the filter. In this, we have four types’ of filters: two horizontal and two diagonal.

Fig 3.0 Polarization by a Filter

WORKING OF QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY:
The main theme of this technology is it can detect/block any kind of eavesdropping by applying the wonderful law of quantum physics. Until and unless the eavesdropper knows which filter to use, he may take a risk of applying a wrong filter and has a chance of getting the wrong output and because of this, passing through the wrong filter, the intruder cannot get the correct output. When someone intercepts in the middle, the spin of the photon changes and the receiver may get a wrong output even after applying the correct filter. Quantum Mechanics is used as a technique to detect the eavesdropping
Detecting Eavesdropping:
It is not possible for someone who wants to intercept in the middle to monitor the transmission of photons without getting the photons altered. When the eavesdropper comes in the middle, he/she will apply some filter in order to get the information. In this process, he may apply the wrong filter and when the photon passes through that filter, the spin of that photon changes. After getting the information, he transfers the information to the receiver, as the spin changes, the receiver may probably get the wrong output. Because of getting the wrong output even after applying the right filter, the users will get to know that there has been someone who is trying to copy their information.
QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION PROTOCOLS:
These protocols provide secure transactions between two end users. It produces a shared random secret key which is known only to the users used to encrypt and decrypt the messages. It can only produce and distribute a key, but not to transmit any data. The key can be used with any encryption algorithm of our choice to encrypt/decrypt a message.
BB84 PROTOCOL:
It is considered the first quantum cryptography protocol. Bennett and Brassard with Stephen Wiesner proposed QPKD protocol in 1984, and later it is named as BB84 protocol 2. The goal of this protocol is to let two users communicate/exchange data between them securely. Let us consider two users Alice and Bob want to communicate with each other. Suppose Alice wants to send information to Bob, they combined select a basis of which filter to use (rectilinear or diagonal). Alice sends the photons through selected filters as the polarized light of photons. Bob then uses the same basis selected by Alice and gets the photons send by Alice in a correct order.

Fig 4.0 – Steps of BB84 Protocol
BB84 WITH NO EAVESDROPPING:
To detect an Eavesdropping effect, Alice will send some random bits to check whether the channel is secure. She includes some test bits in the subset. Alice will let the Bob know which basis she used to encode them. Bob will then use the same basis to decode the information. After decoding the information, Bob tells Alice what output he got.

Fig 5.0- Comparing Measurements
The test bits allow Alice and Bob to detect whether the channel is secure. If some test bits are modified in the middle, they can guess that there is an Eavesdropper in middle of transmission.
GETTING THE FINAL KEY:
When both Sender and Receiver make sure that the channel is secure, the test bits they used in the transaction are discarded and they will then select the Final Key from the other bits which are known only to them

Fig 6.0 – Getting the Final Key

CONCLUSION:
Quantum cryptography is different from any other encryption systems before. It is considered as one of the major security development in the software industry. As this technology gets implemented, we can have secure communications and transactions in bank sectors etc. People think that it is a whole new era of privacy.
REFERENCES:
1. https://doi-org.libproxy.uregina.ca:8443/10.1109/ICIOTA.2017.8073638
2. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing”, Theoretical Computer Science Elseiver, vol. 560, no. 2014, pp. 7-11.
3. D. Wiedemann, “Quantum cryptography”, Sigact News, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 48-51, 1987
4. https://doi-org.libproxy.uregina.ca:8443/10.1109/Anti-Cybercrime.2017.7905271
5. https://doi-org.libproxy.uregina.ca:8443/10.1109/IACC.2016.109
6. C. Elliot, “Quantum Cryptography”, IEEE Security and Privacy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 57-61, Apr. 2004.
7. W. K. Wootters, W. H. Zurek, “A Single Quantum Cannot be Cloned”, Nature 299, pp. 802-803, 1982.

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