a. Civil justice system (CJS) is a form of private law involving the relationships between individual citizens or organizations . It enables individuals to assert claims against others and have those rights adjudicated and enforced. This system allows one to sue for money damage and receive recovery from injuries. It is an equitable system when individual have been injured or harmed due to another person’s negligence, recklessness, or malpractice . The person who started the case is called “Plaintiff” or “Claimant”, while the person who against the case is known as “Defendant”. The claimant needs to proof the evidence to the court in order to win the case. Contract, torts and property law are the example that can run through CJS. Civil justice system is a place for everyone wills able access to justice and keeps a balance of society. The objective of CJS is to make the dispute more justice. This is because the judges are based on the evident to evaluate and making the conclusion based on both parties facts.

bi. Problem and Complexities of CJS
The first problem of CJS is the parties need to pay a very expensive cost and mostly it is often exceed the value of the compensation . Due to the process of CJS is very complicated, both parties need to employ a lawyer with legal expertise to help them and give advice on evidence. The fees that party need to pay to lawyer is high and lawyer will also base on the duration of civil procedure to charge you more. Besides, when the cases are in CJS, those cases need to spend a very long time to meet the conclusion because the process is too slow . Parties need to wait up to 3 years country court and wait up to 5 years for the high court. CJS has no effective control and enforcement of time limit. Furthermore, CJS is too unequal. There might be having a lack of equality between powerful, wealthy party and the under resources party . Besides, sometime the adversarial process may have some problems. Owing to the process of CJS did not have win-win situation, some of parties will make fake confession and evidence in order to win the case at the end. Not only this, some parties will give witness some benefit, so that the confession of the witness at the beginning and after will be not the same. Thus, the process of adversarial will appear a lot of problem and the time taken of the cases will be longer. You also need to bear the uncertainty of litigation costs due to the uncertainty might be happening. Last but not least, sometime when the litigation is proceeding but the parties are in incomprehensible due to it is very complicated and also the organization is too fragment because of the overall responsibility is not clear for the administration of civil justice.

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c. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is an informal process that settles disputes without litigation. The whole process of ADR is more faster compare to litigation, usually settle within 6 months. It is a private procedure, settle through outside the court and generally less costly than litigation. Most of the parties may prefer ADR proceeding because it is collaborative and allows parties to comprehend each other’s position. There are 3 types of ADR such as mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

i. Mediation
Mediation is a party-centered process. It consists of the help of a third party and acts as mediator to help and guide parties reach some mutual acceptable resolution of the dispute toward their own resolution. Mediator is very important in mediation but it has a passive role during the dispute resolvement . Mediators have a goal that was help disputants come to consensus on their own. The role of the mediators is assist parties through communicate with them and listen to both parties . Besides, they need to make sure each of the parties have the chance to talk so that conflict can be lower down . Mediators work together with the parties as partner and help them to find out possible outcome and evaluate the situation. Both parties have the opportunity to describe the issues, discuss their interest, understand each other feeling and explore ideas for the dispute. On the other hand, mediator does not permitted decide the dispute, cannot give any legal advice or personal opinion, have no power to force a settlement and did not have a role in deciding the consequences of the mediation . Furthermore, mediators cannot decide who is right or wrong because the only things of them is finding a solution that everyone can accept with, not making any judgment . They try to help both parties to come out a resolution that is sustainable, voluntary and nonbinding . According to the data in United State, the overall success rate of mediation is always 85% and above, which are year 2010: 89%, year 2012: 90%, year 2014 86% and year 2016: 86% . This shows that the parties who using mediation process can mostly get the good result that they wanted.

ii. Conciliation
Conciliation is a process that is very similar to mediation whereby conciliators try to facilitate a settlement between parties. It is an alternative out-of-court dispute resolution instrument and involves neutral third party. Conciliation is used labor dispute before arbitration and also takes place in many areas of the law. Conciliator need to communicate with both parties who are having a dispute and aim of achieving a settlement or resolution. Conciliation is same as mediation because both of them are voluntary, flexible, confidential and interest based process. The parties seek to reach an amicable dispute settlement with the assistance of the conciliator, who acts as a neutral third party. The conciliator may have to have some professional knowledge or background in dispute. Mostly they will generally provide some advice on the fact and option for resolution. During conciliation, the conciliator will be asked by the parties to provide them with a non-binding settlement proposal. However, conciliator cannot make any decision for your parties or decide who is right or wrong and also avoid provide counseling. Conciliation may be voluntary, court ordered or required as part of a contract. It is often part of a court or government agency process.

iii. Arbitration
Arbitration is a more formal and structural process compare to mediation and conciliation without using the court. It is also a traditional method for resolving legal dispute. A neutral person called an “arbitrator” hears argument and evidence from both side of the parties and then he or she will decide the consequence. It is a system of private justice, not a court proceeding but similar to court because arbitrator has the authority makes a binding decision at the end of the session. In binding arbitration, the final decision of the arbitrators can be agree by the parties and there is no right to appeal. In nonbinding arbitration, the parties may request a trial if they do not accept the arbitrator’s decision. The decision made by arbitrator is called “award” and is legally binding on the parties. The examples of arbitration dispute are properties, businesses, contract and family and the examples of non-arbitration are criminal and charity. In Malaysia, the people who used the method of arbitration are increasing and it becomes more popular for commercial dispute resolution. The outdated 1952 Arbitration Act is replaced by 2005 Arbitration Act. It increases the public confident of the arbitration process.

di. Contribution of ADR
The most important that why to choose ADR process is because of its time and cost is more efficient that litigation . In litigation, it needs more than 2 years to complete the whole dispute but ADR just need 6 to 9 month to settle the whole dispute. While the time taken did not reach huge time, it also means that the costs that you need to pay are less. Moreover, parties can ensure the expertise of the decision maker. They can hire the decision maker base on their preference either he has that background of the knowledge. The third advantage of ADR is it can ensure party autonomy. Because of ADR is a private nature, parties will have more opportunities to control the way of the dispute and solve it base on their preferences . The parties can choose the decision maker for their dispute but litigation cannot. They also can select the applicable law, place, time, language, structure and content of the proceedings. If party autonomy can be increased, it can speed up the speed of the whole process . Thus, it will be more efficient for their dispute and also they can save their costs. In addition, both parties will get the win-win situation when using ADR process. In litigation, the court may let one of the party give compensation. But in ADR, both parties can communicate and find out the outcome that may let both parties satisfied. No win and no lose will happened in ADR process. ADR also give you an opportunity to discuss the strength and weaknesses of your case in confidential with an independent mediator and help you reach the case more effectively . On the other hand, most trial and related proceedings are able to open to the public and media. Last but not least, ADR can reduce conflict between both parties. This is because the outcome of the dispute is based on the agreement of both sides. If the proposal that the third party gave is not suitable, both parties have the abilities to reject until both sides agree. At the end, they might continue their relationship after dispute.

dii. Limitation of ADR
Everything has a good side and bad side. ADR also has several disadvantages. In ADR, it may not reach the desired outcome of the case and does not lead to a resolution, except arbitration but at the end it still needs to end up with court litigation . This means that you still need to invest your time and money in trying to resolve the dispute out-of-court and still end up having to proceed with litigation and trial before a judge or jury . Besides, arbitrations are final. Once the arbitrator decides which side win or lose, the parties may not be appealed. The court will mostly follow the arbitrator’s decision to close the cases. In mediation, it does not have a formal rule for the process. If both parties did not employ a mediator who have that particular knowledge, this lack of formal rule might make the result into impasse. If both parties cannot accept the consequence or compromise, the process can end in failure. Furthermore, the fairness of the settlement is very hard to define to both parties. If the third party get more information and resources from one side or more understand about the process of ADR, he or she might get the other party to agree the settlement. Moreover, the failure of ADR will be very costly . The case of Thakkar v Patel (2017) shows the failure of mediation . The plaintiff was sued the defendant about claim back his money. At the beginning, both of them are been positive about mediation, but defendant accidentally failed to engage with the ADR process without a good reason. Thus, they need to continue with the court proceeding. If this case can be settle in mediation, the defendant can save roughly £300,000 because the parties’ offers were only £10,000 apart and costs were disproportionate to the claim . Besides, the case may not reach the desire outcome. This is because both parties need to be more think to other side in order to reach a very suitable method that both parties need to make a concession. This will make that both parties cannot take the benefits in maximum. Last but not least, facts may not be totally disclosed compare to litigation . Owing to ADR did not same as litigation, sometimes there is a risk that the parties may resolve a dispute without knowing all the facts, which may lead to a wrong decision .

e. Recommendation for improvement
In my opinion, civil justice system and alternative dispute resolution still need have some improvement because nothing is perfect. In civil justice system, it needs reducing the costs and also the time taken. The litigation needs to increase the consistency and fairness of the outcomes and also increase the litigant in order to speed up the process. Technology become advance nowadays so civil justice system should use those technical in order to achieve a high effectiveness service and have a justice result. Besides, due to the process of civil justice system is complicated and most of the parties cannot really understand. Hence, the court needs to make the process become more convenience for litigants by simplifying the process and also provide the on-demand court assistance services.
In Malaysia, alternative dispute resolution is not common used compare to United State, especially conciliation and mediation. The government of Malaysia should encourage and promote the alternative dispute resolution in order let many people know about the process of alternative dispute resolution. Moreover,

f. Conclusion
Civil justice system and alternative dispute resolution have their strong advantages.

A) This article demonstrates how the consumer’s buying behaviour is affected by the situational influences. Belk (1974) highlights different facets of situation such as physical factors for example the type of music within a store, ambience, store location, aroma and the ambience, social factors such as whether there’s a long queue in the store, or are there any high profile people in the store buying a product, reason why buyers purchase a product, task influences for example is there a need or a requirement to buy a particular product. An example can be seen where a consumer wants to buy a wedding ring then in this case the consumer is more likely to spend time in stores looking for a ring because it is a high investment product as it requires time and patience. If it’s a necessity the consumer will just go to any store and will buy the product but if its convenience the consumer is more likely to not buy a product in a rush. The last aspect of situational influence is the consumer’s moods. In order to summarise it can be said the situational influences are temporary conditions that affect the consumer’s buying or purchasing behaviour. Therefore from a marketer’s perspective all such factors are necessary to make sure that consumers buy their products.

Entrepreneurship is everywhere around us. It can found
in smal family shops in any country and it can be found in every global
organization in the world. Our economy is based on entrepreneurship. For
decades already, entrepreneurship created great interest among academics and
the amount of literature and studies about entrepreneurship can be quite much. In
recent, the interest in entrepreneurship has rise to another level. Successful
entrepreneurs such as Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg can known by
anyone in any part of the world.

has an important role in the creation and growth of businesses now affecting growth
and success of countries. Entrepreneurship is the key for business to achieve.
Almost all explanations for business, and for economy itself, depend on
entrepreneurship. Many people around the world engage entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship
takes a different forms and it appears in both small and big businesses, in new
ventures, in legal and illegal
activities, in the formal and informal economies, in innovative and traditional
cases and in all countries and economic areas. Entrepreneurship is the key to
economic development. Governments and academics intend to encourage
entrepreneurs to its importance to employment creation and economy. Without the
creation of new businesses, our economy would end. And business school students
are very interested in entrepreneurship. Most people study entrepreneurship because
of its importance in creating wealth. However, a financial view can be restrictive
and it prevents us from understanding the true impact entrepreneurship has to
people. The entrepreneur is considered to be the means of changing and revising
the economy.

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The entrepreneurial thinking indicates the discovery,
assessment and exploitation of opportunities, in other words, new products,
services or production processes; new strategies and organizational forms and
new markets for products and inputs that cannot be existed. The entrepreneurial
opportunity is an unexpected and as yet under valued economic opportunity. Entrepreneurial
opportunities exist because different individuals have different ideas on the similar
resources or when resources are turned from inputs into outputs. The theory of
the entrepreneur focuses on the beliefs about the value of resources. Entrepreneurship
can be theorized as the discovery of opportunities and the successive creation
of new economic activity, often with creation of a new organization. Because of
the fact that there is no market for opportunities, entrepreneur must find out
them, meaning that entrepreneur must develop his or her capabilities to get resources,
as well as organize and find opportunities. The downside to the ideas or opportunities
lies in the difficulty involved in protecting ownership rights of ideas that
are not associated with patents or copyrights of the different expectations
held by entrepreneurs and investors on the economic value of ideas and business
opportunities, and of the entrepreneur’s need to withhold information that may
affect the value of the project. Entrepreneurship is often discussed under the
title of the entrepreneurial aspect, entrepreneurial initiative, the
entrepreneurial function, and entrepreneurial behavior and is even referred to
as the entrepreneurial life. The entrepreneurial factor is understood to be a
new factor in production that is different to the classic ideas of earth, work
and capital, which must be explained with compensation through income for the
entrepreneur along with the shortage of people with entrepreneurial capabilities.
Its considered as an entrepreneurial function refers to the discovery and
exploitation of opportunities or to the creation of venture. Entrepreneurial behavior
is seen as behavior that manages to combine innovation, risk-taking and pro-activeness.
Entrepreneurial initiative underlines the reasons for correctly foreseeing market
imperfections or the capacity to innovate in order to create a new mixture. Entrepreneurial
initiative covers the concepts of creation, risk-taking, revitalization or
innovation inside or outside an existing organization. Lastly, the entrepreneurial
spirit emphasizes exploration, search and innovation, as opposed to the exploitation
of business opportunities pertaining to managers.

A.R Travel
Established in 1970 A.R travel agency has provided a notoriously professional and personal service planning your trips for friends and families for over 50 years! Making sure your trip away is focussed on all your wants and needs while still being at a reasonable price range suitable to you.


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Domestic Tourism- Domestic tourism is people who are travelling inside their own country for tourism purposes. For example, a person travelling from County Armagh to County Fermanagh.
They usually stay away from their own home for at least one night. Domestic tourist may travel by car, train, bus or even plane but they do not leave their country of residence.
Inbound Tourism- Inbound tourism is people coming into a country that is not their residence for the purpose of tourism.
For example, someone who comes into Northern Ireland from France is a form of inbound tourism.
Outbound Tourism- Outbound tourism is people leaving their country of residence to travel to somewhere different for tourism purposes for example leaving Northern Ireland to go to Spain for a holiday. This is usually by plane, boat or sometimes car.

There are two main types of accommodation one being serviced and the other being non serviced these are vital to the tourist industry.
Serviced accommodation offers the person food and cleaning services like housekeeping which is usually at a hotel, bed and breakfast or guest house. This type of accommodation is used for domestic and inbound tourism. An example of serviced accommodation is the Europa hotel located in Belfast which provide breakfast which is usually included with the price of the stay as well as room cleaning that does not cost extra.
Non serviced accommodation does not provide food or cleaning services (also known as self-catering) so the person staying has responsibility for their own meals and the cleaning of the place themselves. An example of non-serviced accommodation is an apartment like Belfast apartments or can be a holiday cottage or a holiday home this is used by inbound and domestic tourism.

Types of Tourists

Leisure- People who travel for a holiday or it can be for religious reasons, due to their culture or for studying. These type of tourists usually use serviced accommodation.
Visiting Friends and Family- People who travel to a different place to see their friend and/or family and usually stay with them which or a serviced accommodation that is close to them.
Business- People who only travel for the purpose of work for example attending an important conference or visiting a work exhibition and can sometimes be to offer new ideas to a business or to do their work themselves in reality instead of digitally so it’s easier to manage.

The four main means of transport are by air, road, sea and rail.

Air- Travelling by air is for inbound and outbound tourism because they go to lots of different places every day. It is easily accessible to most people because the prices of flights are affordable for the working class but also can be luxurious for the upper class. Plane ticket prices can range from only costing £30 to £3,000. cheaper airlines include Ryanair, Wizz Air while more luxurious airlines would be the likes of Emirates and Virgin Atlantic. Because of the prices air transport has become much more preferred to other modes of transport.
Road- Travelling by road is for all three types of tourism domestic, inbound and outbound. If a person is an inbound/outbound traveller they are more likely to take a bus, get a taxi or even rent a car if their trip is longer to get to their destinations. a While a domestic traveller would use their own car or possibly by bus. An example of domestic as well as inbound tourist transport in Northern Ireland would be Translink bus service because it also goes from Ireland to Northern Ireland and all over Northern Ireland too.

Sea-Travelling by sea is for all three types of tourism domestic, inbound, outbound. It is domestic because ferries can be taken from Northern Ireland to England which is still inside the country. A famous ferry that does this is Stena line which goes from Belfast to Liverpool. It is also outbound because people from all over the world take cruises to visit different countries an example of this would be taking a cruise from England to The Bahamas. A cruise company that does trips like this is P;O cruises from Southampton to Portugal. Inbound tourism travel would be coming from the likes of France to England/Northern Ireland.

Rail- Travelling by rail is for inbound, outbound and domestic tourism travel. Tourist do not usually stay in a country for more than 14 days meaning that they want a mode of transport that is fairly cheap and quick and gets then from one place to another. In Northern Ireland there are 54 different train stations called at all over Northern Ireland. There are also trains that go from England to other countries through underwater tunnels which makes them part of the outbound tourism sector as well.


There is a large variation of attractions available in the United Kingdom, ranging from natural, purpose built or heritage.
An example of natural attractions would be The Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland as well as Lulworth Cove in Dorset.
Purpose built attractions would be the likes of London Zoo as well as Alton towers located in Staffordshire.
An example of heritage attractions would be St Patrick’s Cathedral in County Armagh also the Tower of London.
People also go to certain tourist areas for events for example St Patrick’s Day.

Tour Operators

There are two types of tour operators these are the people who will sell packages that have everything needed for a holiday for example plane tickets, transport to and from the airport, accommodation for the duration of the stay as well as any attraction tickets you may want to purchase.
The first being mass market operators. They put together packages to suit everyone’s needs. For example, 2 weeks in party central Ibiza for a group of people or a weekend getaway in Paris. Usually for outbound tourists, they organize the transport, accommodation etc.
The second being a specialist operator. They plan unique trip for outbound tourists, they organize trips for people with shared interests, such as hiking, and would like to engage in such activities during their trip. This type of tour operator organizes travel plans from beginning to end. For example, they may be the organizer for a group safari, but may also collaborate with a wildlife guide or tracker with more experience leading a group on a safari tour.

Travel Agents

A travel agent is a person selling and arranging transportation, accommodations, tours, or trips for travelers usually on behalf of tour operators, they try their best to help you book your holiday and that you are satisfied with the cost and everything else.
The most popular place to contact a travel agent is online through the internet, but can also be in physical shops (retail/business) or through the telephone (call centers). An example of a travel agents would be Oasis travel which is for outbound tourism because it helps you book your holidays outside of the country.
Tourism Development and Promotion
All countries in the UK have public sector organisations that try to promote their country, the responsibility of the DCMS is to support tourism level.
For example, “The Visit Britain” website has information about the events that are taking place in the country and it also has the time and place that its taking place.
The national websites are usually available in a variety of different languages which means they are accessible for visitors from overseas who want to find out information about the UK, so it is usually for domestic and inbound tourism.

Trade Associations and Regulatory Bodies
According to Wikipedia a Trade association is “an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry.” An industry trade association participates in public relations activities such as advertising, education, political donations, lobbying and publishing, but its focus is collaboration between companies. Regulatory bodies are there to make sure travel and tourism operators are safe and efficient with the public, which is very important for people who are outbound tourist and are wanting to go abroad on holiday.

Ancillary Services
These type of services help the primary operations, for example airport car parks that tailor outbound tourist support the airport by giving people a place to park their cars while they are on holidays out of the country. Another would be insurance companies which are for outbound tourists, they protect you and your luggage support the airport because you know that if your items get lost or stolen or you get injured you will be covered an example of this is Travelsupermarket.com

The five primary roles of Travel and Tourism organisations

To meet key organisational aims- The aims of A.R Travel are firstly to make a profit. Profit is having a higher income than outcome meaning they have made more money than it cost to provide this service. Secondly, we try to maximise sales revenue. Sales Revenue is the income from sales of goods and services, minus the cost associated with things like returned or undeliverable merchandise for example a holiday that has been cancelled. Another aim is to increase our market share. Market share represents the percentage of an industry, or market’s total sales, that is earned by a company over a specified period of time. Market share is calculated by taking the company’s sales over the period and dividing it by the total sales of the industry over the same period. This is used to give a general idea of the size of a company in relation to its market and its competitors. Lastly, we aim to make sure that each employee follows the regulations of The Package Travel Regulations 1992.

To provide services and products- We supply products and services in a safe, secure and efficient manner The travel and tourism sector is to provide holidays and other travel services and products. For most companies this means dealing with the public, but may also involve working with other members of the ‘travel trade’, e.g. a tour operator or coach operator may rely on A.R Travel to sell its holidays.

To be responsible to stakeholders- We take responsibility for anyone with an interest in our organisation from customers which we efficiently supply products and different services to in a safe way. As well as shareholders who have invested in our organisation. Lastly we take responsibility in reducing the impact on our neighbours and host communities.

To be environmentally responsible- We have tried to make sure to protect natural attractions by not over occupying the areas as well as taking care of problems like litter as the premises by having council workers working around the clock to look after the destinations. This is important because the earth is deteriorating rapidly due to humans.
To be ethically responsible- Lots of different countries have different laws and regulations that need to be followed to be ethically respectful. As a travel organisation we take responsibility of informing tourist of this information. This is done because it shows respect to the country and the people.

EasyJet’s aims- EasyJet states their purpose “We’re here to connect people across Europe for work and play. We do this by challenging ourselves and our industry to make travel easy and affordable for all. Our unique Orange Spirit defines us and it means we always try to do things in the right way, every day, for our people, our customers, society and the environment.” (EasyJet.com)
They focus on developing strong positions in Europe’s leading airports, EasyJet is currently at 132 airports in 31 countries with 802 different routes and is still growing. They also have a strong capital base with a market capitalisation of £4 billion and net cash position of £213 million (30th September 2016) EasyJet’s credit ratings are amongst the strongest in the world for an airline. (EasyJet.com)
EasyJet’s services and products- They offer costumers more affordable fares they do this by having a higher number of seats on board, having a higher load factor, younger fleets and more advantaged fleets and by reducing ownership and maintenance costs. They also offer a course for nervous flyers to help them deal with their phobias of flying starting at £199. Easyjet aspires to offer its business and leisure passengers safe and simple flights to a large amount of European destinations (Easyjet, 2014). To meet these goals, the company operates a large, fleet comprised of 220 Airbus A320 and A319 (ADS Advance, 2014). The airline is one of the safest and most punctual airlines in Europe, and has invested significant amounts of money in boosting the quality of its product. For example, the company is investing in drone and robots that will be used to carry out safety checks on the aircraft, and the airline is working towards the provision of ‘paperless planes’ which it says will improve efficiency (ADS Advance, 2014). It is normal for one-way tickets to cost passengers more than round-trip tickets. Carriers prefer passengers to make return flights because selling tickets in this way builds convenience into their flight scheduling processes. Passengers who purchase one-way flights make it difficult for carriers to set schedules and make staffing decisions (Nair et al, 2013). EasyJet utilises a different business model, which makes it more straightforward for customers to understand the product and use it.

Stakeholders- EasyJet interacts with several stakeholders in its operations such as customers, suppliers, infrastructure owners and operators for example air traffic control, regulators and national governments. (EasyJet.com)

Environmental responsibility- EasyJet is trying make more efficient use of fuel and to further reduce emissions per passenger kilometre on its flights they do this by using one engine taxiing, by installing lightweight Recaro seats and lastly, they use electronic devices rather than paper documents in the flight deck. (EasyJet.com)

Ethical responsibility- EasyJet is committed to human rights, in its business and its supply chain. This includes observance of the principles set out by the International Labour Organisation Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. They also have in place several other policies which support the recognised human-rights principles. These are policies on non-discrimination, health and safety, whistleblowing and anti-bribery and corruption. Also, they are committed to gender equality, they established their Amy Johnson Initiative in 2015 to encourage more women to consider a career as a pilot. Lastly, they work with trade unions in the eight countries where their employees are based, as well as through national and European Works Councils. (EasyJet.com)

How does EasyJet interrelate with other component industries? EasyJet interrelates with other industries such as other transport by providing shuttle service, taxis as a cheaper cost, train tickets and a bus service. They also interrelate with airports to make sure costumers are on the correct flights at the correct time they do this by having check in counters and staff available if needed for assistance. They also work with banks offering a prepaid card meaning your money can be transferred into euros to use on the aircraft or at your destination. Lastly, they work with booking.com for hotels they have 410 properties in Belfast alone, this is done to get better deals for people who fly with them which is important because it saves money for the costumer as well as being less time-consuming meaning that they will book with EasyJet again. Information sourced from EasyJet.com.

Visit Britain
Visit Britain’s aims-
Visit Britain’s services and products –
Environmental responsibility-
Ethical responsibility-
How does visit Britain interrelate with other component industries?

English Heritage

English heritage’s aims- According to the English heritage website their vision is “that people will experience the story of England where it really happened.” And their priorities are that they want to “create inspiring visitor experiences that bring the story of England to life also that they make sure our historic sites and artefacts are expertly cared for, so that they can be enjoyed by future generations. We’ll find new ways to involve more people in our work and our target is to ensure we’re financially independent by 2022/23.” Some of English heritages aims are
1. Capture the nation’s imagination with a handful of high profile, memorable new visitor experiences and conservation stories.
2. Significantly improve offers across the board, through consistently excellent presentation, interpretation and visitor facilities
3. Draw on deep customer insight to build those experiences, which will give strong local and national appeal
4. Develop digital offers, making the most of new technologies to tell the story of England in vivid new ways and engage a wider public
5. Provide outstanding learning opportunities for all, whether they’re visiting the sites, browsing online or reading our publications (https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/)

English heritage’s services and products- English heritages provides tourists with many natural and physical tourist attractions like Stonehenge which has a shop present that has products like “souvenirs, clothing, books and gifts to provide memories of your visit, many made in the UK exclusively for Stonehenge” they also have a café that offers locally sourced food like “Stonehenge rock cakes and beer from the Stonehenge Brewery as well as deluxe hot chocolate or in summer, Marshfield Farm ice-cream.” There is also the choice of “soups, sandwiches, Cornish pasties and sweet treats, as well as hot and cold drinks.” (https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/stonehenge/things-to-do/)

Stakeholders- From information sourced from a stakeholder’s survey I have found that Respondents felt that English Heritage’s key roles are:
• Protecting the historic environment (9.2 average on a scale of 1 to 10 when asked the importance of each role)
• Being experts in protecting the historic environment (9.2)
• Providing advice on methods of conservation of the historic environment (9.1) • Supporting the heritage sector (9.1)
• Ensuring that heritage issues influence strategy and decisions at a local, sub-regional or national level (9.1).
Since 2009 the greatest change has been in the proportion of respondents who state that the “protection of the historic environment” is extremely important (55% in 2012 compared to 44% in 2009) and “managing change in the historic environment” (43% compared to 28%). (https://content.historicengland.org.uk/content/docs/research/stakeholder-research-findings-2012.pdf )

Environmental responsibility- 70% of respondents to a stakeholders survey were familiar with the range of grants English Heritage offers to protect and promote investment in the historic environment. This is similar to 2009 (64%). The respondents were asked to assess the importance of each English Heritage grant for the protection of the historic environment. Respondents stated that the most important English Heritage grant was for “expert advice and emergency repairs to ensure that heritage at risk is not lost”. (Just under half of respondents rated this grant as most important). The least important grant was “funding for privately owned heritage at risk”, with 47% rating this grant as least important.

Ethical responsibility- English heritage is part of a charity they state that “As a registered charity, we are governed by a board of trustees who delegate day-to-day responsibility for the running of the organisation to a senior management team. Sir Tim Laurence is Chairman of the board of trustees and Kate Mavor is our Chief Executive.” They are also working on reducing pay gap between men and women by stating “Although we are happy that our top and middle levels of management are balanced from a gender perspective, we know we have to do more to create a better balance across the organisation as a whole. We don’t have an equal pay issue. People doing the same job are paid equally. But we need to make sure that every position is equally attractive and accessible to people, no matter what their gender. We will keep working with unions and staff to achieve this. We will look at recruitment, making sure that we do more to attract a diverse workforce especially for seasonal roles; and look at our internal communications, making sure that the opportunities for flexible working are clear to everyone.” ( https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/siteassets/home/about-us/our-people/eh-gender-pay-gap-report.pdf )

How does English Heritage interrelate with other component industries?

Chain of Distribution, Horizontal and Vertical Integration

The Chain of Distribution is a chart which explains where agents involved with the Travel and Tourism Industry are linked together through the Chain. The Chain of Distribution helps people to understand how horizontal and vertical integration works for example if a tour operator merges with another tour operator this is horizontal integration because they are on the same level as the Chain of Distribution but if the tour operator merges with a travel agent or a transport provider this would be vertically integrated because they are not on the same level.

Tour operators
Travel agents

Horizontal integration is where an organisation owns two or more companies, on the same level of the buying chain. The advantage of horizontal integration is that it can increase the company’s market share. The advantage of horizontal integration is that it can increase the company’s market share. A good example of this, when ”Go” a budget airline owned by British Airways was taken over by EasyJet. When the companies merged, EasyJet power branded this means that all the logos and names that Go used before where now the EasyJet name and logo. EasyJet has more market control, and this allowed them to say what the prices can be. The positive side of this integration is that EasyJet now has more customers flying with them and therefore can have more market space to promote themselves.

Vertical integration is when an organization own companies on two or more levels of the buying chain. Examples of this can be found within all of them that own an airline, travel agent and a tour operator. The companies have until recently, used different names for their travel agency, airlines and tour operators, but now they are power branding their companies so that customers can see who they are booking with. An example of this is TUI UK, which has rebranded its companies using the Thomson name.

A. Jonathan and David’s friendship show us the importance of having a Biblical friendship. In 1 Samuel 18:1 it says, “Jonathan became one in Spirit with David” (NIV) and another translation says, “the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David” (ESV). This joining of souls is consistent throughout the Bible to describe friendship. Deuteronomy 13:6 reads, “the friend who is as your own soul.” (KJ) Basically this means they are close friends and their spirits are one. A Biblical friendship also means being self-sacrificing. When Jonathan formed the covenant of friendship with David because he loved him as himself, we see this reflected in the New Testament when Jesus gave the second greatest commandment, “Love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31; Luke 10:27).
B. In James 4:7, we are told to submit ourselves to God. Jonathan humbly submitted to God’s will even though it meant he would not be king. Jonathan could have followed his father’s orders and kill David but instead he submitted to God’s will because of his love for God and for David. As Christians, we make the decision daily to submit to God. As it tells us in Romans 8:28-29, God will use our pain and suffering as opportunities to submit to His will. By submitting to Him, we trust in God and learn to accept things that happen because God is with us.
C. Jonathan was an outstanding example of loyalty. Proverbs 21:21 says, “He who pursues righteousness and loyalty finds life, righteousness and honor.” (NASB) In the New International Version, the word loyalty is translated into “love.” Loyalty remains constant in good times and bad. We see this in the story of Ruth and Naomi. As it states is Revelation 2:10, “Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor’s crown.” (NIV)


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