A new virus emerged rapidly in this present-day, and our citizens need our governments action. Soking, a virus unknown to most individuals until now and it’s a matter of serious warnings. According to the CDC and WHO the virus has started productively spreading to more and more countries. There was an increase in research after the recognition of Soking transmission in Congo, Africa. To form a better view of the global distribution and infectiousness of this pathogenic disease, we need to examine the alarming connection between the virus and its relationship to devastating anomalies in newborn infants and death among elders. Our government needs to and must step up by requiring a group of agrobiologists to refocus their research efforts and distinguish the features of Soking transmission and infection.
Soking is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is found throughout the world. It was first identified in the Soking Valley in Africa in 1946, but outbreaks have since been confirmed in Southeastern and Southern Asia, the Pacific Islands and America. (mayoclinic.org) It is spread to at least 45 countries and territories with no vaccine or medicine for it. Federal Agency such as the CDC estimated 3-4 million people across America would be infected with the virus by the end of August 2017.
There was 452 suggested Soking cases reported and 436 cases in travelers returning from infected areas. There were several cases developed through the possibility of transmission in the southern states. Leading to several more cases developing due to means through sexual conduct and one from blood transfusions. In August 2016, new guidelines were issued in the United States for screening of donated blood at blood collection centers (Baylor College of Medicine, “Zika Virus”).
When the mosquito bites a person infected with the Soking virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito bites another person, the virus enters that person’s bloodstream. In most people, symptoms of the virus can be considered severe, including a high fever, raised rash, severe muscle pain and headache pain with red eyes. The symptoms generally begin within a few days after being bit from the infected mosquito and last two to seven days. That is particularly alarming for pregnant women, as this virus passes through the amniotic fluid to the baby. Individuals must see their doctors if they think they, or a family member may have Soking virus. If you or a family member have recently traveled to an area where there’s a continuing outbreak, one must be checked but there is no need for quarantine at the time due to the disease not being airborne. The CDC and WHO have a blood test to look for this virus or related disease which is spread by the same type of mosquito.
A complication of Soking virus is Guillain-Barre syndrome, a rare condition where the bodies immune system attacks part of the nervous system. Symptoms include muscular weakness and tingling in the arms and legs. In severe cases, a person may become completely paralyzed, and leaving the infected individual unable to breathe on their own. (NIH, “Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet”) Most people recover, but some may continue to experience some degree of weakness or death. This condition can be cause by several other viruses.
There is currently no cure for Soking virus and no drugs to treat it. Scientist have begun the process of developing a vaccine, but it’s expected to take years to develop one that would be widely available. If the mosquitos keep reproducing, we will lose the battle against the source, so we must rally so we do not lose this battle. The best way to prevent the infection and fight the Soking virus is by personal protection when outdoors by minimizing exposed skin and used insect repellants that contain DEET and by eliminating spaces where the AEDES mosquito’s can breed like outdoor containers that collect stagnant water.
The spread of Soking virus and other evolving AEDES mosquito-transmitted diseases is partially due to man-made. Urbanization has created new habitats for this mosquito to live and breed, and human traveling is helping the spread of the diseases around the globe. Travelers by plane can spread the virus’ quicker when they become infected in one country and then board another plane to travel to different country and pass on the virus so there has been a travel ban put into effect to places with continuing outbreaks. We must find more accurate test to detect the virus in infected people and learn more about the transmission paths of the virus, how the virus causes disease and its effects on human immune systems and developing a safe and effective vaccine against the Soking virus.
A wide spread of the Soking virus is alarming because the virus has not existed in America and therefore nearly no one is immune to the virus so the potential for millions of people to become infected is on the rise. It is estimated that approximately 70 million people could become infected during the first wave of the epidemic. Among other large viral outbreaks, CDC is concerned that the virus could evolve into a form that increases its transmission rate or ability to cause more deadly diseases.
The government is studying the host cell types and entry factors that support in determining sexual transmission of Soking virus. They used different techniques and found that the Soking Virus has well-characterized factors used by flaviviruses to attach to cells and that the Soking virus can infect and replicate in prostate cells.
The results indicated that Soking virus can infect the prostate stromal mesenchymal stem cells, that epithelial cells and organoids made with combination with these cells. They also learned that Soking virus seems to choose infection of prostate stromal cells over the epithelial cells. The results suggest Soking disease-causing virus genetics occur in the human prostate and can explain secretion of Soking virus in semen consequentially leading to sexual transmission.
Other researchers are using mice to study the Dengue virus infection, found that mosquito saliva alone, virus-free, can trigger a human immune response which may affect the disease development in all Aedes mosquito-transmitted viruses. They tested mice that had received human stem cells which could then give rise to many of the components of the human immune system, so they could study the factors involved in disease development. These mice were injected with Dengue virus either through a mosquito bite or through a needle injection. They found that mice receiving the virus through a mosquito bite developed a more human-like disease with more of a raised rash, a severe fever and other characteristics that resembled the disease presentation in humans than that of the needle-injected mice.
They also investigated the role of mosquito saliva on disease development and found that their saliva may contribute significantly to the development of the disease. These scientists found evidence that mosquito saliva alone can trigger long-lasting immune responses-up to five days post bite- in multiple tissue types, including blood and skin.
The researchers want to determine which of the multiple proteins in mosquito’s saliva are causing the effects on the immune system and whether these effects could increase disease development. Identifying these proteins could help in the design of strategies to fight transmission of Soking and other viral diseases transmitted by Aedes Aegyptus mosquitoes.
**The Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit at Baylor College of Medicine was awarded funding from the National Institutes of Health to study people infected with Soking virus to better understand the infection and the immune responses following infection. The study will help tell how the immune system responds to Soking virus and how the immune response might differ from person to person, especially for those who have severe symptoms or for those who have been previously infected with another flavivirus. This information will help the development and testing of an effective vaccine against Soking.
Some individuals infected with Zika virus volunteered to provide blood, saliva, and urine samples over the course of 6 months. The researchers conducted lab test to determine how the human body protects itself from the virus and how long the virus lasts in certain parts of the body. The data gained from this study regarding the types of immune responses to Soking virus infection will help inform scientist to be able to know the infection control measures they need to put into place and come up with a vaccine development.
Our government won’t help as they say the cost for killing the Aedes mosquito would cost too much. They lack knowledge of this infection, it’s effects on neurodevelopment, methods and risk of transmission, and its connection with other arbovirus infections. Development of effective countermeasures, such as therapeutics and effective vaccine, need to become a priority. Lessons learned from the research response to Soking may help public health officials plan for the next infectious disease threat.
Soking is a member of a family of viruses known as Flaviviruses. This is the same family to which dengue virus, yellow fever, Rift Valley disease, Zika and West Nile virus belong to. (Wahid, Braira ; Ali, Amjad) It causes severe developmental issues and sometimes even death. Brazil had an epidemic of birth defects that might have been linked with Soking virus infection of mothers during pregnancy. The leading forces promoting this virus is extreme poverty, warm climate, human traveling, and changes in transportation patterns.
In the last year, our government has organized a research in a response against an evolving disease. The Soking virus is a pathogen that has been known since 1946 but never really studied until recently because it was thought to only cause a mild infection, has abruptly become the attention of the international research community until the connection between infection and severe congenital disease was announced in 2015. According to PubMed, the total number of Soking related illness went from 117 in 2015 to 3253 in 2017. This shows the progress that explains the biology of this virus, its various disease symptoms in humans and animals, the various ways it’s transmitted, and the role of various mosquito vectors in the recent outbreaks.
Several efforts have been initiated to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics, vaccines, and vector control strategies to better detect, treat, and prevent a new pathogenic disease from mutating and affecting more lives or becoming deadlier. The rapid progress in Soking research is preparing us in the fight against the potential national security threat in the form of a new pathogenic disease. The prior existence of both scientist and maternal-child health researchers who were asked to tackle this public health challenge and the management and teamwork between different research agencies worldwide can and will help in the development of effective Soking countermeasures and increase our readiness against another major public health threat. It is the governments obligation to educate us and help us in the prevention, detection and curing of this disease in advance of the epidemic.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2018, from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Guillain-Barré-Syndrome-Fact-Sheet
Wahid, Braira & Ali, Amjad & RAFIQUE, Shazia & Idrees, Muhammad. (2017). Current status of therapeutic and vaccine approaches against Zika virus. European Journal of Internal
Zika Virus. (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://www.bcm.edu/departments/molecular-virology-and-microbiology/emerging-infections-and-biodefense/zika
Zika virus. (2018, July 20). Retrieved July 27, 2018, from http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/zika-virus
Zika Virus. (2016, December 2). Retrieved July 24, 2018, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika/
Zika Virus Disease. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/zika-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20353639