Interior design is the study and application
of improving the look and feel of the interiors of a specific place to get a
more delightful and exciting atmosphere. An interior designer is a person who
does the planning, researching, coordination, and management of such projects
and works. Interior design specialty consists of so many work areas that
include development of conceptions, planning  of space, Site overlook, researching ,
Programming , contacting stakeholders of a specific project. Construction
supervision and management, and implementation of design.

Background and history of interior design:

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Interiors used to be combined altogether intuitively as a part of building
steps. The interior design specialty has been a result of the of civilization
and the complex architecture that has caused from the growth of industrialized procedures
in the past. The hunt of active use of space, user well-being and functional
design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design
profession. In the United States of America, the profession of interior design
is separate and distinct from the work of interior decorator. In the United Kingdom,
the term is less common where the job of interior design is still unrecognized
and consequently, firmly speaking, not yet recognized to be an official job.


One of the mythology gods in India, the
architect Vishwakarma had references that proved this. Furthermore, in palaces
built and developed in the 17th century in India, sculptures portraying
old texts and events.

In addition, in prehistoric Egypt, “soul
houses” or mockups of houses were located in tombs as receptacles for food

From these, it is possible to distinguish
details about the interior design of not the same residences throughout the
different Egyptian families, such as changes in airing, porticoes, columns,
loggias, windows, and doors.

During the course of the 17th and into the
early 19th century, interior decoration was the worry of the homemaker, or artisan
who would advise on the creative stylishness of an interior universe. Architects
would also employ craftsmen or artisans to finish interior design for their constructions.









Interior design Ideas:




Soft Furnishes:

Soft furnishes are domestic items made with
cloth or textile products.



A curtain is a piece of material suspended at the top to form a covering
or screen, typically one of a pair at a window.



Curtain style:

-Grommet curtains are slung by threading
the curtain pole through a hole in the top of the fabric. Either this could be
a cutout hole with the edges finished by a row of stitching or it could use a
grommet to prevent fraying.

-Rod pocket curtains have a channel sewn
into the top of the fabric. A curtain rod is passed through the channel to hang.

-Sash curtains are used to cover the lower
sash of the windows.


-Thermal or shutdown curtains use very
tightly woven fabric, usually in multiple layers. They not only block out the
light, but can also serve as an acoustic or thermal dampener.

-Curtain liners are used to keep actual
curtains from becoming wet.



Traditional Furnishings

Domestic interiors were becoming more
comfortable and upholstery was playing an important part in interior decoration,
in the middle Ages. The decorations comprised mostly of what we would now
consider as “soft furnishings”, though there were simple platforms of
webbing, canvas or leather for stools, chairs and elaborately decorated
coverings that already demonstrated the rudimentary beginnings of upholstered
furniture. By the beginning of the 17th century chair seats were being padded,
but this form of upholstery was still fairly basic. All kinds of stuffings from
sawdust, grass, feathers, to deer, goat or horsehair were used, although in
England the Livery Company forbade the use of goat and deer hair and imposed
fines for misdemeanors. The stuffing was heaped on a wooden platform and held
in place with a decorative top fabric and nails. This produced a simple dome
shape sloping towards the seat. Only towards the end of the 17th century did
upholsterers start to develop the techniques that would distribute and shape
the stuffing into more controlled shapes. Curled horsehair was being used more
consistently for stuffing that was easier to hold in place with stitches in
twine that were developed from saddlery techniques. Thus layers of stuffing
could be distributed evenly and secured to stay in place. On a basic level,
squab cushions were made more stable by using tufting ties. Stuffed edge rolls
appeared on seat fronts providing support for cushions to be retained and later
for deeper stuffing to be held in place under a fixed top cover.



Commercial upholstery       

This is the type of upholstery work offered
to businesses. Examples would be restaurant seating consisting of booth seats,
dining room chairs, bar stools, etc. Also churches, including but not limited
to pews and chairs for the congregation, hospitals and clinics consisting of
medical tables, chiropractic tables, dental chairs, etc. Also common to this
type of upholstery would be lobby and waiting-area seating. Upholstered walls are
found in some retail premises.


Marine upholstery

Upholsterers might be called upon to repair
or replace seating, cushions, cabin furnishings, headliners and even carpeting
on boats.

Each style of marine grade vinyl is rated
according to cold crack, rub counts, and mold resistance. Stainless-steel
hardware such as staples, screws must be used to prevent rust and early break
down of hardware and fasteners. The newest products for fastening vinyl in
marine applications are Tenara thread and Monel staples. Any wood used must be
of marine quality.

Most of the time a high-resiliency,
high-density plastic foam with a thin film of plastic over it is used to keep
out water that might get by the seams. Closed-cell foam is used on smaller cushions,
which can, sometimes, double as flotation devices.


Lighting Types:

Lightings of indoor space:

of  the  most 
common  indoor  light 
bulbs  are  incandescent 
bulbs,  which  look 
like  a traditional  light 

Lightings of outdoor places:

The lightings that are used outside of
outdoors are mostly not the same as those that are used indoors since they must
be much more brighter and stay longer. It is good to note that there are so
many different types of lightings used outdoors:


Important Lighting Measurement Terminology

1.      Wattage: Is known as the amount of electricity
consumed by a light source.

2.      Lumens: is the amount of light that a light
source produces.

3.      Foot-candles: is the amount of light that
gets to a subject.

4.      Efficacy: is the amount of Lumens per watt.






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