a) History of E-commerce
E-Commerce can be define as the process of buying and selling goods, or services on an online platform.
Most of the enterprises with an online presence are using an ecommerce store and/or e-commerce platform to handle all the digital marketing and sales activities. Companies also need to control the logistic process, which is very different than traditional supply chain process.
There are six main e-commerce models in which we can classify businesses:
1. Business-to-Consumer (B2C).
B2C ecommerce is defined as all the transactions between a business and a individual. This model is one of the most famous model use in e-commerce. When a shopper buys a TV from an online TV retailer, this transaction is considered as a B2B transaction.
2. Business-to-Business (B2B).
B2B ecommerce is defined as all the sales made between a company, and another company, like a supplier and a retailer for example. This e-commerce model cannot be seen by the consumer since it only happens between business entities.
3. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C).
One of the first and oldest e-commerce model existing is the C2C ecommerce business model. C2C describes the sale of a product or a service between an individual, and another individual. EBay and Amazon, for example are the 2 most famous C2C ecommerce website, but there are lots of others. In Singapore, Carousel is also very used for C2C transactions.
4. Consumer-to-Business (C2B).
C2B overturns the traditional e-commerce model. This is a model which is for example often see in Crowdfunding projects.
5. Business-to-Administration (B2A).
This e-commerce business model gather the transactions happening between online businesses and administrations. It is not the most used model, but still important to be aware of it.
6. Consumer-to-Administration (C2A).
Same model here, but with the reverse method, which mean that consumers sells products or services online, to an administration.