ADVANCED ACADEMIC ENGLISH
TERM PAPER : FINAL DRAFT
PUBLIC TRANSPORT IS A BETTER OPTION IN TRAVELLING THAN PRIVATE TRANSPORT IN KUALA LUMPUR
LECTURER’S NAME : DR ZUHANA MOHD ZIN
LIST OF MEMBERS :
1. KARTHIKAN AL SELVARAJAN A16MJ0037
2. NARENDRADEVA AL BASKARAN A16MJ0095
3. MOHAMAD FARIS ZUFAYRI BIN SAIPUNIZAM A16MJ0055
4. MUHAMMAD HAFIZ HAKIMI BIN MOHD ZUKI A16MJ0080
PUBLIC TRANSPORT IS A BETTER OPTION IN TRAVELLING THAN PRIVATE TRANSPORT IN KUALA LUMPUR
In this modern era of globalization, public and private transportation have become the medium used by people as their travel mode. Public transport is defined as the system of vehicles such as buses and trains that operate at regular times on fixed routes and are used by the public (dictionary.cambridge.org, 2017). Private transport, on the other hand, is defined as vehicle owned or operated by an individual or group, not a governmental entity, for his or its own purposes or benefit (transport-dictionary.org, 2008). More often than not, public transport is perceived as the better option in traveling when compared to private transport. One of the reasons behind this is that it reduces dependence on oil supplies that is decreasing rapidly (“Benefits of Public Transport”, 2015). Public transport is also perceived to be safer than driving a car (Steg,2003). Besides, taking public transport also encourages the people to have an active and healthy lifestyle especially when they are walking or cycling to their station (“Benefits of Public Transport”, 2015). Moreover, taking public transport aids in fostering a sense of community among the commuters (“Benefits of Public Transport”, 2015). However, the increase in private transport commuters in Kuala Lumpur as stated by Mohamad and Kiggundu (2007) brings up the question of why people still prefer to use private transport instead of taking up public transport despite public transport is perceived in having a lot of advantages. Hence, this paper is aimed to discuss the best transport mode in Kuala Lumpur in terms of cost, time and convenience based on the studies and surveys that have been done.
An investigation had been carried out as the primary source for this paper. The investigation is conducted by going to Wangsa Walk Mall and NU Sentral Mall by means of a car in representing private transport and Light Railway Transport (LRT) as public transport. Both these malls were chosen because both of them were accessible by both the LRT and also by car. The time taken, cost and degree of convenience are recorded when using both the transport. To avoid biases, field work was done in two different modes of transport to travel on two different working days (10th April 2017 and 11th April 2017) at the same period of time which is between 3pm and 5pm. This is to make sure that the time of the day doesn’t affect the result of the survey. Besides conducting an investigation, another form of the primary source used to get the data is by interview. Three students, Mr. Adi, Mr. Asyraf and Mr. Anuq were interviewed individually regarding their personal opinion on their experience traveling in both the car and also LRT. To avoid biases in our interview results, our respondents were the students who frequently use both the car and also public transports especially LRT. The results of the interview can be found in Table 6 in Appendix 2. Online journals, online newspapers, and the reliable website has been reviewed and used as the secondary source for this study. The results from the studies show that public transport is better in term of cost whereas private transport is better in term of time and degree of convenience.
Cost is one of the three main elements that are considered in this study. Based on the investigation that was carried out by traveling to and from Wangsa Walk Mall and NU Sentral Mall, the cost of traveling by public transport is much cheaper than private transport. The total amount spent while using the private transport (car) and public transport (LRT) was RM 17.50 and RM 3.80 respectively, which is a difference of RM 13.70. Refer Appendix 1 on the details. Adi, Ashraf, and Anuq (personal communication, April 15, 2017) also agree that public transport is a better option in terms of cost since they claim that it is cheaper compared to private transport. The only price one has to pay when using public transport service is the ticket fare which is cheap. Whereas, when using the private transport such as cars, the user has to bear all the cost that is required to pay for the petrol price, the parking fees and also the toll fees. Besides, as stated in the study by Fenn (2017), additional expenses need to be considered such as the car maintenance cost, car insurance charges, and tax charges when using private transport. All these expenses spent on the private transport in total contributes to the total expense of traveling by private transport to be higher than traveling using public transport. Adi and Ashraf (personal communication, April 15, 2017) added that they prefer using public transport, especially when traveling longer distances because it is cheaper as they only have to bear the ticket fare compared to the all the expenses like toll price, parking ticket fare and petrol price, that one has to bear while traveling in private transport.
As stated in the study by Fenn (2017), public transport also offers season tickets or advance booked tickets, which makes the ticket cheaper than its usual price. This serves as a definite privilege for the people who frequently uses public transport in traveling or planning a trip in advance. Moreover, the person who regularly uses public transport can apply for the concession card which is the personalized smart card that allows certain groups of people to pay for the basic bus services and trains at a subsidized rate (“Concession Card”, 2015). For instance, passengers with disabilities are eligible for the public transport subsidies and fare reductions (Dave, 2014). This will ease the financial weight when traveling as they can spend lesser compared to those not using up the concession card while traveling to the same place using the public transport. In term of cost, public transport is the choice of the commuters to travel in Kuala Lumpur compared to private transport since fewer expenses are needed when traveling through public transport.
Time is also one of the important elements measured in this study. The study by Polat (2012) says that as the journey time becomes longer, the tendency for the search of alternative transport modes escalates. Based on the field work that had been carried out, the time taken to travel using the private car was lesser compared to the time taken using public transport (Adi, Ashraf, Anuq, personal communication, April 15, 2017). The total time taken to travel from Wangsa Walk Mall to NU Sentral mall using public transport and private transport is 18.28 minutes longer when comparing public transport with private transport which took 47.13 minutes and 28.45 minutes respectively. Refer Appendix 1 on the details.. In using the car as the transport mode, the time it takes mainly comprised of the traveling time and also the time taken to find parking in the mall. In the case of the public transport, the time took that need to be considered is the time required to buy a ticket in the queue, waiting time for the arrival of the train, traveling time and also the time taken to reach the mall from the station and vice versa. The traveling time through public transport becomes longer during peak hours especially when the commuters have to wait for a longer queue to buy the ticket as the commuters need to tolerate with inadequate ticketing counters and poor utilization of ticket vending machines. This situation takes a turn for the worse when the machine breaks down during peak hours, in which all the commuters waste their time on just waiting in the long queue to purchase their ticket. This would eventually cause the commuters to miss several trains before boarding the train to their destination due to overcrowding.
Besides low arrival and departure time reliability (long waiting time), the study by Almselati, Rahmat, Jaafar and Yahia (2015) states that at present time, public transportation services have low travel speed and low frequency which contributes to the traveling time through public transport to be longer. Adding on to that, Ashraf (personal communication, April 15, 2017) also states that he prefers using private transport when traveling through short distance because it would be faster compared to the public transport as the long waiting time for the arrival of the train consumes his time. All of these contribute to the elongation of time taken to travel by public transport compared to private transport. This causes people to have a higher preference to travel by private transport than public transport, especially when traveling around a city like Kuala Lumpur.
Another important element measured in this study is the degree of convenience. According to the study done by Nkurunziza, Zuidgeest, Brussel and Maarseveen (2012) on the individual preferences, comfort is the most valued element compared to travel time and travel fare. Based on the field work that had been carried out, it is found that private transport is more convenient than public transport.Refer Appendix 1 on the details. Ashraf and Anuq (personal communication, April 15, 2017) also agree that private transport is more convenient when compared to public transport. Private transport is more convenient as the commuter is able to sit comfortably in the vehicle throughout the journey unlike in public transport where most of the time, the commuters were unable to find a seat. This actually causes inconvenience to the people traveling a long distance as they have to stand throughout their journey. Inadequate space in public transport, especially during peak hours, causes it to be a challenge for the wheelchair user (Dave, 2014). Since public transport often being crowded and noisy, traveling in public transport will make life difficult for children and adults with special needs (Dave, 2014).
Traveling by private transport is also more convenient than public transport as private transportation can be obtained easily and one doesn’t have to travel or walk long distances before having to be able to use the transport. As stated by Syed (2016), Malaysian commuters have an unorthodox mindset when it comes to public transport as they expect the train or bus to drop them right in front of their destination. On contrary to how it is in London and Singapore, Malaysians do not prefer to walk as they make the weather an excuse for them not to walk (Syed, 2016). Moreover, in cases of emergency, private transport would prove to be the superior mode of transport amongst the two as it is easily obtained (Dave, 2014). Hence, private transport is the more convenient mode of traveling in Kuala Lumpur when compared to public transport.
In conclusion, based on the studies that been done, private transport is better in terms of time and degree of convenience whereas public transport only stands out in term of cost when compared to the private transport. Ironically to the argument of this study, in overall, private transport is the best transport mode in Kuala Lumpur when compared to public transport. Even though private transport is more flexible and offers an easier form of travel in the eyes of the commuter, but still public transport should be encouraged to travel more as it is a greener form of travel especially in urban cities like Kuala Lumpur. Besides, people should be encouraged to take up public transport as it also cuts off the congestion in our country and reduces the amount of total carbon footprint contributed by the private transport.
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traffic congestion and improve public transportation in Malaysia. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 38, 59-66. Retrieved on May 06, 2017, from http://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2015.04.005.
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Concession Cards. (2015, July 31). Retrieved May 23, 2017, from https://www.lta.gov.sg/content/ltaweb/en/public-transport/mrt-and-lrt-trains/train-fares-and-travel-cards/concession-cards.html
Dave, J. (2014, December 09) Public vs. Private Transportation for Individuals with Special Needs – Friendship Circle – Special Needs. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from http://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2014/12/09/public-vs-private-transportation-for-individuals-with-special-needs/
Fenn, K. (2017, April 20). Public Transport vs Private Transport. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from http://www.energysavingsecrets.co.uk/publictransportvsprivatetransportthedebate.html
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Public Transport Services in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: KTM Komuter. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 566-573. Retrieved on May 06, 2017, from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.089Mohamad, J., ; Kiggundu, A. T. (2007). The Rise Of The Private Car In Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia. IATSS Research, 31(1), 69-77. Retrieved on May 06, 2017, from https://doi.org/10.1016/S0386-1112 (14)60185-0Nkurunziza, A., Zuidgeest, M., Brussel, M., and Maarseveen, M.V. (2012). Modeling
Commuter Preferences for the Proposed Bus Rapid Transit in Dar-es-Salaam. Journal of Public Transportation, 15 (2), 95-116. Retrieved on May 06, 2017, from https://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/JPT15.2Nkurunziza.pdf
Polat, C. (2012). The Demand Determinants for Urban Public Transport Services: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(12), 1211-1231. doi:10.3923/jas.2012.1211.1231
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/article/is-kls-public-transport-system-that-bad-some parts-yes-otherwise-no” http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia
APPENDIX 1: Field Work Results
Our group does the fieldwork to determine whether which transport mode: private car or public transport, is better in term of cost, time and degree of convenience.
PLACE: WANGSA WALK MALL TO NU SENTRAL MALL
DATE: 10/APRIL/2017 & 11/APRIL/2017
1.From WANGSA WALK MALL to parking 1.42 min
2.Travel time to NU SENTRAL MALL 22.03min
3.Time Taken to find the Parking 3.15min
4.From parking to NU SENTRAL MALL 1.45 min
Total time 28.45 min
1.From WANGSA WALK MALL to LRT station 10.25 min
2.Waiting in queue to but ticket 3.05 min
3.Waiting time for train 7.20min
3.Travel time to NU SENTRAL 24.08 min
4.From LRT station to NU SENTRAL 2.15 min
Total time 47.13 min
Petrol RM 10
Parking RM 5
Toll Charges RM 2.50
Total RM 17.50
Ticket Fare RM 3.80
Total RM 3.80
GROUP MEMBER PUBLIC TRANSPORT PRIVATE TRANSPORT
Faris X /
Hafiz X /
Naren X /
Karthikan X /
APPENDIX 2: Interview Results
QUESTIONS ASKED Adi Asyraff Muhammad Ashraf Muhammad
Anuq1. Which transport mode do you prefer travelling if your destination is accessible by both the public & private transport? Private Private Private
2. Which transport mode do you prefer travelling on short distance and why?
Public. Because it is easily accessible Private. Because it is comfortable. Public. Because it is faster.
3. Which transport mode do you prefer travelling on long distance and why? Private. Because it is comfortable and convenient. Public. Because the price of petrol rising. Public. Because it is cheaper.
4. Based on your opinion which one is a better option
(Private or Public) in terms of:
•(A.Asyraff, personal communication, April 15, 2017)
•(M.Ashraf, personal communication, April 15, 2017)
•(M.Anuq, personal communication, April 15, 2017)
Pictures Taken During Fieldwork
Picture 1 Picture 2
33863853547039Picture 1,2,3 shows the condition in the LRT when the field work is done.
00Picture 1,2,3 shows the condition in the LRT when the field work is done.
center19685 At WANGSA WALK MALL.400000 At WANGSA WALK MALL.
153098565828At NU SENTRAL MALL
4000020000At NU SENTRAL MALL