In 1959 India became conscious about China’s activity along the border and established military check posts along the McMahon line towards Tibet; which only resulted in a clash between the two countries. During the same year, a few months forward, the disorder and skirmishes along the border intensified, when the Chinese soldiers made incursions into the Indian territory and killed an Indian Patrolman. This led to an ever-growing belligerency which had its core to the upsizing of the border by the Chinese officials towards their neighboring country. To reciprocate the Chinese gesture, perhaps India could have tackled the crisis, by assaulting the Chinese trespassers, as the incident was not a mere border conflict and couldn’t be gone disregarded. But India having a pacifistic belief from the beginning, only conciliated further to this incident by proffering a protest with the Chinese government to persuade them to quit its policy of further engagement with India. Throughout 1960-1962, Chinese soldiers repeatedly invaded the privacy of the Indian territory and confronted with Indian troops. While the Chinese troops engaged on the Indian border to prepare for a large-scale battle in 1962, the Chinese officials only tried gaining time to get the man power ready by making false accusations against India and justifying them through the ongoing border issues. In the summer of 1962, Nehru declared that India was preparing for the contingency of a war with the communist China and stated: “Broadly speaking, we do not want – we dislike intensely, a war with China. But that is not within our control. Therefore, we have to prepare for the contingency. We are growing stronger to face it.”  Although Nehru showed India to be in a stronger position, the Indians had problems with fire power, due to limited budget and minimal artillery with insufficient ammunition. By the fall of that year, Zhou Enlai tried to convince Nehru that China did not want war, but simultaneously ordered the People’s Liberation Army of China to mass along the frontier.The major fighting of the war took place from October 10, 1962, until November 20, 1962. The first critical battle held on October 10, 1962, when the Chinese army charged rapidly towards the border. The skirmish costed lives of 25 Indian and 33 Chinese troops. The Chinese had defeated the Indian army and took over the possession of approximately 30 thousand square kilometers of the Indian territory.  Since India believed in pacifism and thought that there was no outside danger to them, apart from Pakistan, their national defense budget was nominal. Seemingly, Indian intelligence was also deficient.  The insufficient readiness for war was also caused by the climate and weather conditions in the area, causing lack of mobility across the high mountains of the Himalayas. During the war, the entire border was the issue, but the actual fighting occurred only in a few areas near Aksai Chin.  Although the tensions between China and India were for the whole frontier, the fight took place only in the areas where China asserted their claims. With thousands of fatalities throughout both the armies and many more severely injured, an ultimatum from America to step in on behalf of the Indians, China announced a ceasefire on November 20. With the conclusion of war, India and the rest of the world saw the extent of the Chinese attack, as they had swiftly eradicated all the Indian troops from all the disputed territories. Even with the war lasting only a month, the fatalities reached to a count of 1,383 Indian troops and 722 Chinese troops, with 1,047 Indians and 1,697 Chinese injured. Additionally, nearly 4,000 Indian soldiers were captured.  In the end, the Sino-Indian War brought changes and ramifications to both the countries and the world.  There were dramatical changes in the legislative and military throughout southern Asia by the end of 1962. China kept the possession and control of the Aksai Chin region. Back in India, prime minister Nehru was condemned for his nonviolent beliefs against Chinese hostility, and for the insufficient preparations prior to the war. Because of the war India recognized many of its weaknesses in the army, leading to increased man power as well as an optimal national defense budget. Several lessons, still applicable today emerged from the Sino-Indian war of 1962. Nehru’s expectations from China and the belief that China would not engage in a battle with India proved that assumptions are dangerous and speculations about the enemy must be made on solid evidence with accurate knowledge. Being ignorant to the counsel of experienced army officers and discounting the lack of preparation, Nehru led India to disaster.


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