3.4.2.3. Traditional microwave (6 – 42 GHz):

Microwave backhauling has been the primary solution for cost-effective wireless mobile backhaul infrastructure worldwide. Microwave backhaul networks tend to operate within the 6-42 GHz licensed band, are deployed using FDD with paired channels, since low frequencies are less sensitive to rain, these bands will continue to be used for long hop distances. The microwave spectrum is divided into specific frequency bands administered by national regulators in individual countries. The licensing fee is determined by formulas depending on the transmission data rate, the required bandwidth, or both.
A point-to-pint microwave link between two base stations located at fixed points composed of four main elements: a transmitter, a receiver, antennas, and transmission lines (see Fig. 3.6). The transmitter produces the signal that carries the information to be communicated. It generates the microwave energy using the selected frequency and configured transmission power, and modulates it with the input signal. From the transmitter, the signal is sent to a directional antenna through the IF cable. On the transmitting end, the antenna emits the signal from the IF cable into free space. At the receiver site, an antenna directed towards the transmitting station collects the signal energy and feeds it into the IF cable for processing by the receiver. The microwave directional antennas characteristic of concentrating the received signal allows communication over long distances. Finally, the receiver extracts information from the signal by detection and demodulation.
Since the bandwidth of each microwave channel is narrow (7 to 56MHz), the data rates of traditional microwave links are relatively low, it can provide up to 1 Gbps. The introduction of wider channels such as 112 MHz has started, which, together with new spectrum-efficient technologies such as Polarization multiplexing, Line-of-sight MIMO, higher modulation and Multi-layer header compression will further boost capacity. Traditional licensed LOS microwave point-to-point links have played important roles in backhaul for 3G and 4G, but the demands of 5G will quickly deplete its capacity. The 5G capacity requirements will push the backhaul spectrum toward higher frequency bands (millimeter wave bands). 17

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Figure 3.6: Microwave link components

3.4.2.4. Millimeter wave:

The millimeter wave is regarded as a promising candidate for 5G mobile backhauling in dense urban areas. Millimetre Wave is a wireless enabled technology for multi Gb/s data transmission communication systems. It refers to wave lengths 1 to 10 mm where is corresponding to frequencies in the range 30-300 GHz. The explosive developments in circuit technologies have led to mmWave now being considered a viable option, and indeed foreseen as shaping next?generation wireless backhaul. The mmWave link can be used in line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) applications. 18
IEEE 802.11ad standard was developed in 2014 for outdoor backhaul. It specifies the physical layer and MAC layer in the frequencies above 40 Gbps and support wireless transmission with multi Gb/s but with limited range. Current research has shown that point-to-point systems using mmWave either in V-band (57-64GHz) or E-Band (71–76 GHz and 81–86 GHz) can achieve higher data rate (up to 10 Gbit/s). The V- and E-Band spectra were regulated or were being considered for regulation for the deployment of communication systems by most countries and region in the wold. 19
Millimeter wave communications suffer from huge propagation loss compared with other lower frequencies communication system. The rain attenuation and the atmospheric and molecular absorption characteristics of millimetre wave propagation limit the range of millimetre wave communications 18, which will be discussed in details in chapter 4. However, this may be advantage for densely deployed small cells because of the reduced interference from adjacent links and, in turn, increased the probability of frequency reuse.
The millimetre wave in V-Band (57-64GHz) has been proposed in 2009 which allows very high data rate over 2 Gb/s. The advantages of using this band include inference migration, security and QOS is it an unlicensed band. However, V-Band suffers from high atmospheric attenuation due to oxygen absorption (around 15 dB/km) and limitation of the transmitted power (< 0.5 W) seriously limiting radio transmission distances. 20
The millimeter wave in E-Band (71–76 GHz and 81–86 GHz) is favourable for high data rate due to small atmospheric attenuation 0.5 dB/km. E-band is the highest allocated frequency band by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2003 in wireless history.
Furthermore, the E-Band technology offers many advantages over the wireless communication technologies such as low cost of construction, quick deployment, flexibility, high reliability and security. Moreover, the E-Band can operate with up to 3W of output power and high focused signals. Thanks to the small wavelength of E-band signals, it is possible to achieve high antenna gains at E-band frequencies. The high antenna gain and high transmission power allow E-band to overcome the high propagation loss and high rain fading experienced at E-band frequencies providing an opportunity for higher data rates with long range.
The E-band frequency allocation consists of the two 5 GHz frequency channels (71–76 GHz and 81–86 GHz), which is larger than any other microwave frequency band, enabling a new generation and high capacity of wireless transmission to be introduced. E-band frequency spectrum is divided into a pair of 5 GHz channels. A single pair 5 GHz channel at E-band is around 100 times the size of the current largest microwave frequency channel. The advantages of E-band wireless communications include the large, uncongested, inexpensive spectrum with total 10 GHz of available bandwidth which enables very high data rates beyond 10 Gbps. These advantages make the E-band links ideally suited for short range (0-3 km) wireless communications. E-band can be used also as link protection in the case of fiber breakage, the service can be restored temporary more rapidly than restoring the original fiber link. 18
To promote E-band usage, the national wireless link regulators and administrators in many countries have introduced “light licensing” for managing implementation this band, providing the E-band with an attractive alternative to existing licensed traditional frequency bands. The “light licensing” policy “first come first served” allows the E-band licenses to be applied for a little time and at low cost per year, significantly faster and cheaper than those for traditional microwave bands. The “light licensing” policy comes from the unique characteristics of the E-band. First, since there are few E-band services currently. Second, the high frequencies at E-band allow the systems to adopt highly directional antennas and communicate via highly focused transmissions, leading to dense configuration of communication links without interference concerns and thus a high degree of frequency reuse. Third, the E-band frequencies are configured as a single pair of 5 GHz channels, which makes the frequency planning/coordination unnecessary and the related interference analysis significantly simplified. Thus, the E-band administration and cost of license are highly reduced.
Looking to the future, wireless communication has an interest in the use of frequencies above 100 GHz, as they will enable capacities in the 40 Gb/s range over hop distances of about a kilometer.

3. The importance of the IOR was realised by the Indian leadership during the initial days of free governance. In the years after independence, this region was overlooked by India because of troublesome relationship with Pakistan and inclination of the government to resolve the Kashmir issue with world support. The need to have a cohesive network of cooperative nations in the region is essential to ensure a peaceful management of the trade and the mulita-lateral trade links thereof. As one of the fastest growing economies in the region, economic security including energy security and security of energy is a pre-requisite for India. (GDP in India was worth 2597.49 billion US Dollars in 2017, represents 4.19 percent of the world economy) .

4. The Look East Policy of India, framed by the Narasimha Rao government in the early nineties, is a substantial manifestation of India’s focused foreign policy orientation towards South East Asia. The region being one of the most resourceful and flourishing region worldwide. South East Asia presents itself as a virtually untapped market which is up for grabs. India’s compatibility with the South East Asian countries with regard to better regional cooperation lies in the benign approach towards South East Asia economically and otherwise. The camaraderie between India and South-East Asia is clearly visible through the dynamic persuasion of India’s Look-East Policy. India and ASEAN reciprocally have embarked upon a number of initiatives for rejuvenating their ties in multiple areas. Frequent tête-à-tête from both the sides promulgates better implementation of the Policy. The improving intensification of economic linkages with ASEAN has inspired India to enter into the second phase of

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total sterols (2.9 mg/g oil), followed by almond oil (2.7–2.8 mg/g oil) and pecan oil (2.6–2.7 mg/g oil). Argan oil – Argan oil is produced from the kernels of the fruits of argan trees (Argania spinosa L.) (88). Cosmetic-grade oil is produced from non-roasted kernels.Cosmetic-grade argan oil is used for treating skin pimples, juvenile acne, chickenpox pustules and dry skin, and reducing the rate of appearance of wrinkles. Dietary argan oil is traditionally considered to have several heath-beneficial properties. The oil contains 0.4–1.1% unsaponifiable matter containing carotenoids (37%), tocopherols (8%), sterols (29%), triterpene alcohols (20%) and xanthophylls (5%) (44). Argon oil contains between 142 and 220 mg/kg of PS. Sterol content of virgin argan oil is presented in Table 10. ?-sitosterol, the most common sterol in most vegetable oils, is absent in argan oil (89). The major sterols detected in theargan oils are schottenol (mean 147±10 mg/kg) and spinasterol (mean 122±10 mg/kg) (88). These findings are important in detecting the adulteration of argan with cheaper vegetable oils.Grapeseed oil – Grape seed oil is obtained from the seeds left following pressing grapes to produce juice. Grape seeds contain 6-20 % wt of oil, which is usually extracted with solvent and refined before use. The total levels of sterol range from 258 to 1125 mg/100 g with an average value of 571 mg/100 g. ?-Sitosterol is the major sterol, comprising about 60–80% of total sterols, and followed by campesterol, stigmasterol and ?5-avenasterol. Grape seed oil also contains small amounts of steradienes, dehydration products of sterols formed during heating or refining process (90, 91). The content of steradienes in commercially extracted grape seed oils varies from 0.05 to 6.7 mg/kg (91).Wheat germ oil – Wheat-germ oil (WGO) is a specialty product, which is used for itsnutritional value, specifically for its high vitamin-E content. Unlike common oils such as soybean and canola oils, which are mainly used for their heat-transfer properties during cooking and for providing a pleasant mouth feel in salad dressings. The oil content of wheat germ varies with the variety, the purity, and the extraction method. Commercially flaked wheat germ contains 7–11% oil (92).WGO is relatively rich in unsaponifiable matters, particularly PS, n-alkanols, and tocopherols. PS are a major constituent in the WGO unsaponifiable fraction (about 35%). Sitosterol (60–70%) and campesterol (20–30%) are the two main PS present in WGO (92). PS are known to accumulate in the bran and germ fractions of the wheat grain, whereas steryl ferulates are mostly found in the bran (93). The majority of the PS in WGO are present in esterified form. Cycloartenol, ?-amyrin, and 24-methylene cycloartanol are the major triterpenols, which constitute less than 1% ofWGO (92).Avocado oil – The cold-pressed avocado oil is rich (2–7%) in unsaponifiable matters, including 2230–4480 mg/kg of PS (mainly ?-sitosterol, 81–92%), 70–190 mg/kg of tocopherols, mainly ?-tocopherol (110mg/kg), and many unidentified components (50). Like other common vegetable oils, sitosterol is the main plant sterol present in avocado oil (81–92%). Other sterols such as ?5-avenasterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are also present at much lower concentrations.Vegetable oils can be extracted in different ways, including by press or solvent. Oil extraction by press is for oilseeds with oil content higher than 20%. However, oilseeds with oil content lower than 20%, such as soybean oil, should be extracted by solvent. Press methods can also be divided into cold or hot press. Oil extractedby solvent or hot press has to be refined, but there is no need to refine cold press oil. Solvent extraction is more effective on the extraction of sterols than cold pressing.

3.3.1 Performance Expectancy: is defined “as the degree to which using a technology will provide benefits to consumers in performing certain activities” (Venkatesh et al., 2012, P.159). According to Jewer (2018) Kim et al. (2016); Hoque (2017); Houque &Sower (2015); Ndayizigamiye & Maharaj (2016) PE is the most influencing factor that affect the actual using of M-health. The customers adoption is depend on how such method_M-health_ might be effective in preventing illness threads by easing medical appointment and decreasing time and effort in the diagnosis process. It is important for the customers to feel the change after using the M-health; achieving customers goal of adopting the apps and obtain what M-health promising to improve (Sun et al.,2013; Alalwan et al.,2017; Jewer, 2018). therefore we proposed:

H1. Performance expectancy will positively influence Jordanian customers’ intention to adopt Mobile Health Applications

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3.3.2 Effort Expectancy: is “the degree of ease associated with consumers’ use of technology” (Venkatesh et al., 2012, P.159). EE has a high effect on M-health adoption (Kim et al., 2016; Hoque, 2017; Hoque ;Sorwar, 2015; Ndayizigamiye ; Maharaj, 2016). The use of training programs and technical support will efficiently effect potential customer’s capabilities and their perceptions and also increase their perceptions of M-health (Wu et al., 2007). EE is highly influential within UTAUT2 model as age is taken into account. The elderly do not like using technology because they think it is difficult to handle; If there is an expectation that M-health applications will be easy to learn and apply there will be a greater chance to be adopted especially by elderly (Hoque,2017). Therefore we proposed:

3.1 Research design

Research design is a planning and arrangement of procedures for collection and analyzing of data in a way that the researcher will be able to achieve the research’s objectives (Kothari, 2004). The study used a case study design because it was very flexible during the process of data collection as it helped the researcher to collect sufficient amount of data and information within a short period of time with minimum financial implications. Also, it was very easy to triangulate information from various sources. In this sense, the study described the extent to which code of ethics for internal auditors influence the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector.
3.2 Area of the study

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The study was conducted in Dodoma region specifically at the Ministry of agriculture. The region was selected because the headquarters of the ministry are located in that region, so it was easy to get data and relevant information pertaining to the influence of code of ethics on the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector in Tanzania.
3.3 Sampling Frame

Sampling frame is the list of entire population in which the sample is to be drawn (Kothari, 2009). The sampling frame of the study was 117 employees from 6 departments and 11 units found in the ministry of agriculture.
3.4 Population and Sample size
3.4.1 Population of the study
A population is a comprehensive itemized list of all subjects from which a sample was taken (Mugenda, 2003). A researcher has to have a specific population as his research population target upon which he uses to make all his inferences regarding validity of what he/she is researching on Kothari (2009). The study targeted 17 heads of departments in the ministry, 10 internal auditors and 90 other staff of the ministry from all 17 departments of the ministry. Thus, the target population of the study was 117 employees of the ministry of agriculture. The population of the study has been addressed in Table 3.4.
3.4.2 Sample size the study
The study involved a sample size of 67 respondents grouped into three categories; 17 heads of departments, 10 internal auditors and 40 other staff of the ministry. Heads of departments and internal auditors were chosen purposively while other staffs were chosen through simple random sampling technique. The sample size has been addressed in Table 3.4.
3.5 Sampling techniques

Sampling is the process of selecting a sample from the population of interest in order to make observation or making statistical inferences about the population under study (Neuman, 2007). In this research, two sampling procedures were employed, namely; purposive sampling and simple random techniques. Purposive sampling was used to select 27 respondents from the ministry due to their importance in this study and by virtue of their positions. Respondents who were selected by using this method were 6 heads of departments, 11 heads of units as well as 10 internal auditors of the ministry. While simple random sampling was used to choose randomly 40 respondents from the population to avoid biasness.
Table 3.4: Sample size and sampling selection
The table below shows the categories of respondents, the targeted population, the sample size in each population category and the sampling selection procedures used by the researcher.
S/N Respondent categories Target Pop Sample size in each
pop. Category Sampling selection
procedure
1 HRM Department 7 3 Simple random
2 Finance and Account Unit 11 5 Simple random
3 Planning Monitoring and Evaluation Unit 7 3 Simple random
4 Training Unit 5 2 Simple random
5 Internal Audit Unit 10 10 Purposive
6 Procurement Management Unit 6 3 Simple random
7 Government Communication Unit 2 1 Simple random
8 Legal Unit 5 2 Simple random
9 Management Information System Unit 7 3 Simple random
10 Agriculture Environment Management Unit 5 2 Simple random
11 Crop Development Unit 6 3 Simple random
12 Agricultural Mechanization Department 5 2 Simple random
13 Agricultural Land Management Department 5 2 Simple random
14 Research and Development Department 4 2 Simple random
15 Food Protection Department 5 2 Simple random
16 Agricultural extension services Unit 6 3 Simple random
17 Plant Breeder’s Right Unit 4 2 Simple random
18 Heads of Departments and Units 17 17 Purposive
TOTAL 117 67

3.6 Data collection methods

The study used both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through questionnaires and interview while secondary data were collected through documentary reviews.
3.6.1 Primary data
Primary data is a data collected by researcher in the field for the purpose of answering research questions (Jamal and Kamuzora, 2008). Primary data provides the researcher with original and reliable first-hand information about the problem under the study. In this study, the primary data were collected through questionnaire and interview as follows.
3.6.1.1 Questionnaires

A questionnaire is a research tool consisting of a series of questions (Elliot and Jacobson, 2005). In this study, the questionnaire was developed from the research questions. The study used questionnaires designed in a 5-scale point Likert-type. This type of questionnaires was used because it was very easy to construct with minimum cost and helped the researcher to trap relevant information and data used in the analytical part of the study.
The questionnaires consisted of two parties. Part I, sought to gather general information on the respondents, while part II focused on the study information about the influence of code of ethics for internal auditors on the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector. Then, they were distributed to the 17 members of the management team, 40 supporting staffs and 10 internal auditors of the Ministry of agriculture in Tanzania. However, 65 questionnaires were filled by the respondents, making a response rate of 97.01%. The questions were both close-ended and open-ended in order to increase the validity of the responses.
All the respondents were literate, hence forth they read and answered the questionnaires accordingly. Thus, they helped the researcher to get an in-depth understanding on the effect of code of ethics for internal auditors on the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector.
However, the questionnaires were administered at all time in order to have the intended numbers of the respondents and reduce some ambiguities of understanding some of the word(s) on the questionnaires where by clarifications were provided. The administration was by ‘drop and pick’ style that allowed respondents an ample time to complete the questionnaires.
3.6.1.2 Interview

The interview method of data collection involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral verbal responses (Kothari, 2009). This method helps to clarify ambiguous responses and fill in missing gaps because there is a direct contact between researcher and respondent. In this study, face-to-face interviews were administered to 10 internal auditors at the ministry. The interview guideline was used because of its flexibility in adding additional information which was not appeared in the questionnaire.
The respondents apart from being provided with the questionnaires it was viewed that it was important to hear their opinion in respect to the implementation of code of ethics for internal auditors at the ministry. They were given questions to respond and were free to share their experience. During the process of interview the researcher had been taking some notes on the responses for records, avoidance of exaggeration and misinterpretations of the information and further analysis. Therefore, this method enabled the researcher to obtain relevant qualitative data from the respondents which aided to accomplish the research.
3.6.2 Secondary data
Secondary data are data which are not new and original at the date of publication (Saunders et al., 2009). They belong to someone else rather than the current author and it has already been collected and analyzed by someone else. In this study, secondary data was collected through documentary review as follows:
3.6.2.1 Documentary review
Documentary is the data that is already available and already collected and analyzed by someone else (Kothari, 2004). Since the ministry of agriculture in Tanzania had the data which were already collected, analyzed and stored, thus, they were very useful to the researcher. The researcher reviewed the ministry’s quarterly and annual reports for the financial years 2013/2014 to 2016/2017; the central government internal audit manual issued by the Accountant General Department, Ministry of Finance and Planning, Tanzania; the Internal Audit Handbook issued by the Ministry of Finance and Planning; the Code of ethics for internal auditors issued by the Institute of internal auditors; the training programs of the ministry for the financial year 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 respectively and various internal audit journals as shown in the reference part of this dissertation report.
3.7 Data Validity and Reliability

Validity is defined as the extent to which data collection methods accurately measures what they were intended to measure (Saunder et al., 2009). Simply, validity means the accuracy, correctness or truth of measuring instruments. In this study validity was done during planning stage where by the supervisor was consulted to check the questionnaire before the process of actual data collection started. All questions were pretested in the areas in order to ensure that, data collected were valid.
Reliability refers to a state that exists when data are sufficiently complete and error free to be convincing for their purpose and context (Morgan and Waring, 2004). The researcher used SPSS to measure the consistency of the questionnaire designed in a Likert-type scale. The researcher conducted a pilot study to pretest the questionnaire in order to increase its reliability in data collection and identify any ambiguous and unclear questions.
The pilot study was carried out by administering 10 questionnaires which also helped the researcher to determine the suitability of the instrument in collecting relevant information before administered to the entire target group. After making the relevant amendments to the questionnaire in response to the results of the pilot study, it was then administered to all the respondents.
To carry out the reliability analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha (?) which is the most common measure of scale reliability was used. According to Cohen and Sayag (2010) a value greater than 0.700 is very acceptable. The value of the Cronbach’s Alpha (?) of the study is shown in the table below:
Table 4.1 Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
0.732 0.784 10
Sources: research data, 2018 SPSS output
From table 4.1 above, the value for Cronbach’s Alpha (?) was 0.732 for all variables and thus the responses generated for all of the variables used in this research were reliable enough for data analysis.
3.7 Data analysis
In this study, data collected from primary and secondary sources were recorded, organized, analyzed, interpreted and presented in relation to research questions. To arrive into findings, the study employed Statistical Packages for Social Science version 20 (SPSS) for analyzing descriptive data whereby different tables, figures, percentage and frequencies were generated from the software. Qualitative data were presented in word statements. The study used SPSS because of its capacity in generating verities of findings and accommodate large quantitative data.
3.8 The Regression Model of the study
The study used regression model. The model was used because it normally employed to explore the relationship between one dependent variable and a number of independent variables and provides information about the model as a whole (Pallant, 2010). Thus, the model helped the researcher to explore the predictive ability of a set of independent variables on one dependent variable.
In this study, the independent variables were; integrity, objectivity, confidentiality and competence of internal auditors while the dependent variable was effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector in Tanzania. The model of the study was;
Y = ?1X1+ ?2X2 + ?3X3+ ?4X4 + ?
Where: Y stands for the effectiveness of internal audit function;
X1 stands for Integrity of internal auditors;
X2 stands for Objectivity of internal auditors;
X3 stands for Confidentiality of internal auditors;
X4 stands for Competence of internal auditors;
?1, ?2, ?3 and ?4 stand for correlation coefficients of independent variables; and
? was the error term.
The study explored the model in details on how a unit increase in integrity, objectivity, confidentiality and competence of internal auditors would affect the effectiveness of internal audit function in the public sector as explained in the chapter five of this study.
3.8 Ethical consideration

Respondents were assured of the confidentiality of data they had provided that the information would be used for academic purposes only. Meanwhile, the participants were also free to withdraw from the study at any time, the manner which demanded replacement to ensure balance of the targeted sample size.
Moreover, the research clearance letter was collected from the university to enable easy collection of the required data from the targeted respondents. Respondents consent was free and no force was used to induce respondents towards participating in responding to interview and questionnaires.

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