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2(i) Why Employers Value Decision Making
Organizational culture and management style together determine the decision-making process in each company. Some may use consensus-based approaches, while others rely on administrators or administrative groups to make important decisions about the company.
Many organizations use a combination of centralized and consensus-based styles. As one employee participates in the decision making process depends on his position in the overall structure of the company.
If you are preparing to apply for a specific job, then IMPO carefully read the description of the work and carefully examine the company to understand the methods of decision-making that the prospective employers are looking for. Add skills to your CV, cover letter and interview.
(ii) The Decision-Making Process
A good way to make the most informed decision is to consider all the relevant information and follow the process of considering the most probable outcome. A staggered checklist like this is useful for that purpose.
Define a problem, challenge, or opportunity.
1. Generate a series of possible solutions or answers.
2. Evaluate the costs, benefits, and trade-offs associated with each option.
3. Select a solution or answer.
4. Implement the selected options.
5. Assess the impact of the decision and modify the course of action as needed.
You can’t always find yourself through six steps in an obvious way. You can take responsibility for one aspect of the process, but you can combine the different steps into different phases instead of others. However, someone has to go through each step. Skipping steps generally leads to bad results. Example
Even if you have no management experience yet, you are likely to make a decision on Professional frameworks. Because decision making is not always a process of cutting and drying, you may not realize what you are doing.
This example gives you an idea of what activities you can share with potential employers and their work history to show their decision-making skills. It is important to keep the involvement of the job requirements as appropriate as possible.
• Identification of defective machines due to the obstruction of the production process.
• Facilitate brainstorming sessions to create names for new products.
• The polling staff assesses the impact of the retail time extension.
• Analyze the proposals of three ad agencies and choose the best company to carry out the campaign.
• Ask your staff for feedback on important topics that can help you with your request ability.
• Create a list of options for the new regional sales territory.
• Assess the impact of various cost-saving measures
• Compare the leadership potential of other team members and select project managers.
• Search for legal or logistical issues related to the new company policy.
• Brainstorm possible topics for fundraising campaigns.
• Analyze focus group data to facilitate selection of new product packaging.
• Compare the strengths and weaknesses of the three potential suppliers for the treatment of payroll.
Keep in mind that the technology that is important in decision-making is not about learning a variety of techniques, but also knowing the fundamentals, always applying them, and re-evaluating and improving them. If you or your teams consistently participate in getting good results, you need to make good decisions.
(iii) Common Challenges of Decision Making
Performing the above-described steps will help you make more effective decisions, but there are some problems to look for. Here are some of the common challenges you might face with best practices to help you avoid these problems: • Have too much information or are insufficient. It is important to gather relevant information when approaching the decision-making process, but it is essential to understand the actual amount of background information that is needed. “The overload of information is to keep you confused and unordered, and to prevent you from following your intuition.
• Rely on the results. Even if you follow the steps in the decision making process, the results are still unlikely to be exactly what you have in mind. Therefore, it is very important to check for valid and valid alternatives. Excessive confidence in unexpected results can have negative consequences.
Decision-making is an important skill in the business environment, especially for people in executives and management positions. In addition to recognizing common challenges, it can help to ensure well thought-out decisions and positive results, according to the logical procedures described here.

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2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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2. Uses of multi sources feedback system
in performance management
Multi sources evaluation model is used in assisting high-level management, to appraise their employees. Utilizing the concept of using four multi sources evaluation model in the performance appraisal system could ease the changes need to be made in this system whenever it is necessary. This model follows a systematic step in determining a staff’s performance, and therefore, it creates a system of appraisal which can consistently produce reliable and valid results for the appraisal process. To allow others to use this system, the aspect to be evaluated and the weightage for each of these aspects need to be define in the system beforehand.
Typically, performance appraisals have been limited to a feedback process between employees ; superiors. With the increased focus on teamwork, employee development ; customer service, the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources. This multi input approach to performance feedback is called “360-degree assessment”.

The methodology for the feedback is that data is obtained through the questionnaires that measure behaviors of individuals from different perspectives against list of competencies. A typical 360-degree feedback may cover the following aspects of performance-
Shared Vision and Mission
Strategic Orientation
Leadership
Teamwork
Communication
Organizational Skills
Decisiveness
Drives
Adaptability
There is a need for actions following the process of feedback, otherwise the whole activity could lose it effectiveness, if the purpose is developmental, the actions may be left to individuals as part of their personal development plan
Advantages
Individuals get a broader perspective as to how they are perceived by others
The feedback provides a more rounded view of their performance
Enhanced awareness and relevance of competencies
Awareness for senior management too, as they will get to know their need for development
Feedback is perceived more valid and objective as it’s collected from varied sources.

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Before the actual implementation of the system, questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the human resource section to evaluate the usability and effectiveness of the system. To demonstrate the application of multifactorial evaluation model in the performance appraisal system multifactorial evaluation model was developed. This performance appraisal system uses al criteria provided by the company by using the following steps:
Design questionnaire
Feedback process
Evaluation & communication
Formation of developmental plans
Follow up
Survey.

Summarized rating and weight age of the 4 aspects of performance
Aspect Rating Weighting
Aspect 1 Exceptional 1.0
Aspect 2 Superior 0.6
Aspect 3 Fully Successful 1.8
Aspect 4 Satisfactory 0.8
Marks for different sources of feedback
SL Feed back Marks
1. Feedback from superior 50
2. Feedback from peer groups 25
3. Feedback from students/results 20
4. Self 5
Here we have following points to remember:
Every source of feedback has marks.
According to select option, final getting marks of particular source is calculated using above table grades and scale.

Therefore, the staff’s Overall Performance Rating (OPR) is: –
OPR = ((1.0 * 50) + (0.6 * 25) + (1.0 * 20) + (0.8 * 5)) = 89
6. Appraisal method and effectiveness
A performance assessment is an essential activity of the HR department, which provides important and useful information for the efficiency, efficiency, knowledge and staff performance of overall job performance. These assessments are also used to destroy organization’s behavior and production issues and to make contributions to the workers more. Various organizations have been using different methods to assess employee performance, which is described below are some popular topics.

Essay method
Cost accounting method
Confidential report
Forced distribution method
Forced choice method
360-degree appraisal
Field review method
Checklist
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
There are different methods which the organizations can use according to their preferences. Let’s look at some of the ways in detail, which is given below-
Essay method
It is a traditional and decisive method by which employees are evaluated and written on a descriptive composition. Articles describe the strength, weakness, possible, nature and so on. Assessment helps in collecting a lot of information about workers’ employees, because employees cannot be evaluated on the strictly-defined criteria. The process is undeniable and flexible, allowing employers to emphasize any subject or feature that they think is relevant. However this method is tedious and difficult to manage because it demands more than other methods of evaluation. It is difficult to describe descriptive details of nature, compare them or withdraw any conclusion. In addition, the evaluator must have good writing skills, otherwise the whole process will be distorted.

Comparative evaluation
Comparative evaluation is an evaluation of employee evaluation by an employee evaluating and contrasting an employee with the other. There are two main ways to evaluate comparisons; they:
Paired comparison
Under this approach, employees of the same job are added to the post or level employees, which is why they are evaluated based on each other’s performance. Evaluate the skills, experience, team players, behaviors, etc. with the appropriate assessors and choose the best editor’s staff. Appropriate, the radars are supplied with a throws slip, each employee’s name is a pair. The employees who are considered the best of Raters are given a check mark and the process is repeated for all pairs. Finally, most successful workers get the most ticks when the staff eating less ticks are considered relatively poor.

A good method to compare the pair for employee performance evaluation. However, by applying the formula, the pair in pairs, the pair in pairs, the pair in pairs, the pair in pairs, it is very difficult for the joining pair:
N (N-1) ÷ 2, where N = No. of employees
For an example, if there are four employees, the number of pairs formed will be six.

Rating
A commonly used traditional method of rating performance evaluation. Under this method, the employee is rated numerically from 1 to 10 to determine the performance of various tasks like his presence, attitude, performance, output, sincerity, dependence, initiative etc. Employee can be rated by his / her parent, colleagues or even the customers, depending on the type of work, all the quantity measurements are finally calculated and the results are revoked.

Performance evaluation rating methods are commonly used because it does not require high efficiency in nature’s economic and raters to use it. Also, it applies to almost all types of jobs and even large workshops. However, due to the weakness of this system, for example, due to the bias of the night, employees may be mistakenly rated.

Forced distribution method
At the end of 90, Tyfen introduced a new method that effectively evaluation calls were forcibly distributed, causing radar errors to be eliminated. According to this method, raters are organized from the institutions, which are forced to divide them into some sections evenly to their employees. Class 10% poor, 40% good, 40% good and 10% can be excellent, poor, average, well and excellent or percentile.

This forced distribution method is widely used and has been appreciated as an effective in service-driven organizations. But this forced distribution method has some drawbacks. They are:
All employees might not fit neatly into a category
This forced distribution method creates false competition between employees
Raters may end up placing more visible employees in superior categories and less visible ones in poor category, irrespective of their job performance.

Forced choice method
Forced choice method of performance appraisal was introduced by J.P. Guilford. It is one of the most systematic and reliable approach to evaluate employees accurately.Under this approach, the HR manager, at first, prepares a set of positive as well as negative statements. The statements are then forwarded to the rater, following which the rater indicates which of the given statements suits the employee. Once the rater finishes evaluating all employees, the report is sent to the HR manager for final assessment.Some examples of positive and negative statements are:
Positive statements
Communicates well with superiors.

Plays active role in meetings and other office events.

Negative statements
Consistently over-promises and under-delivers.

Isn’t punctual, often comes late to the office.

Graphic rating scale method
The operational evaluation of the executive evaluation method was introduced by JP Gilford. This is the most systematic and reliable method to assess employees properly. Under this method, the HR manager first, sets out a set of positive and negative statements. Then the statements are sent to the night, so that the night indicates that the given statement is appropriate for any employee. Once the staff of the night completes the assessment, the report is sent to HR Manager for final assessment. Some examples of positive and negative statements are:

Field review method
Those who is not belong to the employees department conduct the appraisal in this field review method. Management use of this technique to evaluate employees’ performance. This is also helpful in eliminating uncertain issues that may arise in workplace. However, this method is not widely used because of the drawbacks. They are:
The rater is not familiar with employees, making it impossible for him to observe their actual behavior.

The rater might feel aggrieved in cases when employees try to clarify any matter.

Checklist
Another simple method to evaluate employee performance evaluation of the checklist method. The checklist may include the list of questions (show worker performance and employment exposure) and respond to the ‘YES’ or ‘NO’ form of the night. This method is helpful not only in evaluating employee’s job performance but also in evaluating degree of uniformity of the rater by giving him two similar questions in different manner.

Confidential report
The method of evaluating employee’s performance and taking necessary actions without giving any feedbacks to the employees is known as confidential report. Authorized personnel can only view or investigate the report. And that’s why personnel send openly but in sealed envelope. Generally, such method of performance appraisal is conducted yearly, and employees are appraised on the attendance, team work, dependability, leadership, behavior, discipline, integrity ; honesty, quality ; quantity of output.

Critical incident method
Critical incident method is used to evaluate the ability of employees to work during such situation. Under this method, the rater keeps record of effective as well as ineffective behaviors of individual employee at the workplace.Such appraisal is conducted periodically. And at the end of every assessment, the HR manager or some experts evaluate the behavior and score them, depending upon which the best scoring employees and poor scoring employees are identified.Maintaining logs of employee’s critical incident behavior helps in preparing checklist too. The group of experts evaluates the behaviors of employees collectively and they prepare checklist, whenever necessary.Critical incident method evaluates job performance of an employee, rather than his personality. However, this method has some drawbacks. They are:
Ineffective behavior or negative response of employees is easily noticed than positive ones
It is time consuming
It requires very close supervision which is disliked by the employees
Recording detailed information about every employee is problematic
Raters may forget to mention any important incidents
Management by objectives (MBO)
Management by objectives (MBO) is a modern and systematic method of appraising employee’s performance which was jointly founded by some experts of management science like Drucker, McGregor and Odiorne. Managers of present generation know results of traditional methods of performance appraisal were majorly based on the perspective or opinion of the raters. They have realized that it is essential to know what achievement from an employee’s point of view is.MBO is employer-employee driven approach of performance appraisal which involves superior and subordinates in setting goals. The employees work upon achieving their set goals and employers keep a record of how close they are to accomplishment of the goals. This way, employees become clear about which path to walk on to get the goals, subsequently increasing and improving his performance level.MBO, at this point, does not only work as a tool for evaluating performance but also as a motivation factor which allows the company to extract maximum output from available human resource, permitting employees adequate space for self-development and growth.

Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) is the combination of critical incident and rating scale methods of performance appraisal. Under this method, the scale points are defined by critical (effective or ineffective) behaviors of the employee. BARS usually consist of scale ranging from 5 to 9 points, each representing continuum of statements that describes behavior of employees ranging from unacceptable to most effective.

A BARS can be developed in following steps.

Collecting samples of effective and ineffective job behavior from the experts by analyzing the critical incident method
Converting these samples into performance dimension
Relocating the performance dimension (from unacceptable to outstanding)
Rating the performance dimension accordingly, starting from 1
Finally, using the scale anchor to evaluate employee’s performance
Cost accounting method
Cost accounting method of performance appraisal is the process of evaluating monetary benefits yield to the organization from the job performance of an employee. In other words, this method is used to analyze the cost of keeping the employee and the benefits the company derives from his/her presence and / or absence.

There are some major points which are considered while evaluating employee under this approach. They are:
Average value of unit cost of production of goods and services
Quality of the goods and services produced
Overhead cost incurred (lighting, electricity, equipment, etc.)
Extra-expenses (accident, error, damage, wear and tear of tools and equipment)
Relationship with customers and clients
Cost of the time spent by the supervisor in appraising the employee
Performance Appraisal: Maintaining system effectiveness
Controlling the System
Controlling the performance appraisal system requires the coordinationof all facets of the system. Personnel staffs are generally assign for this task. Among the many responsibilities are ensuring that ratingperiods are established, the proper rating techniques (such as managementby objectives (MBO) and behavioral anchored rating scales(BARS)) are used for each employee’s evaluation, performance appraisaltraining is conducted for raters and rates the performance appraisalsystem is operated in a legally defensible manner, performance appraisalreviews are conducted on time and the results of the performanceappraisal process are properly linked to the programs dependent onthem (merit pay, promotion, employee development and others).

Ensure the system is monitored
Certain indicators may assist in determining the effectiveness of a performanceappraisal system. These indicators are setting quality of performancestandards, conducting performance appraisal reviews, using performanceappraisal results, tracking raters, socialization of scales, andeliminating adverse impact.Monitoring these system areas usually requires planning and, in someinstances, implementing special procedures. Although there are manypossible ways of monitoring these areas, a few are suggested here withdiscussion.

Qualityof Performance Standards:The standards should be specific, challenging, realistic, dynamic, understandable, consistent with the organizational goals and, when possible, measurable. A specific standard should be developed for every rating an employee is to receive.

Conduct of Performance Appraisal Reviews:Performance appraisal reviews must be scheduled in advance and conducted when scheduled. Both raters and employees should prepare for these reviews. Most organizational procedures require annual formal performance appraisal reviews. Yet many are finding that more frequent reviews, such as informal quarterly or semiannual reviews, produce a better understanding of the job requirements and increase both the rater’s and employee’s appreciation of the job.

Tracking the Raters: A rater tracking system is particularly helpful in monitoring a performance appraisal system. “Tracking” consists of reviewing the ratings awarded by individual raters, and subsequently giving raters feedback concerning the quality of their ratings. It is useful to focus part of the review on the levels of ratings awarded and, where possible, the justification for the levels being awarded. The reviews can furnish insight into a rater’s understanding of the appraisal process and adequate ratings available in the system.

20. Importance of Effective Employee Appraisals
Performance is generally known as an outcome or result of an individual’s actions. An individual’s performance therefore becomes a function of ability and motivation (Ainsworth et al., 2002). Performance Assessment (also performance appraisal, evaluation, measurement) becomes a continual review of the job related task accomplishments or failures of the individuals within the organization. A major consideration in performance improvement involves the creation and use of performance measures or indicators; which are measurable characteristics of products, services, processes, and operations the company uses to track and improve performance.Workplace evaluation can happen several times in a year, where an employee and critics, usually employee supervisors, can sit and discuss a long face in all aspects of work. So, evaluation can serve many important functions. If effectively done, evaluation can provide great satisfaction for both employees and critics.An effective worker provides an opportunity to provide feedback as well as the feedback. Employee gets important information such as she knows what she is doing well and who needs to improve; she knows exactly where she stands. The reviewer can get feedback from the employee who can help improve the work environment. Critics can also uncover things that can accomplish employees’ actions and take necessary steps.

Employee recognition and rewards
Assessment gives employees the opportunity to recognize and reward and to ensure that they feel valued for the work. Monitoring the performance and progress with the target can determine whether employers can reward employees with salary increases, promotions or bonuses. This is an opportunity to thank you and to give oral feedback and praise. Highlights will not be significant financial success. Although money still has significant importance, and they should be regularly reviewed to be consistent with competitive and gradual performance, government and sincere confessions are still a long way in maintaining employee employment.

New challenges and clear objectives
Culture organization is a great place where employees feel the real concept of confidence. They have come to understand that how the organization is trying to achieve, its mission and values ??are inspired by and their role plays a role in achieving overall success. The topics discussed during the assessment meeting will help employees understand how specific goals will be taken for them in a broader business plan. It helps to give an idea of ??employee ownership in joint ventures and helps empower them to achieve the desired results. It is a great opportunity to provide ongoing challenges to regularly review the goals and to ensure employee motivation through new goals and experiences.

Continued progression and development
The obvious growth opportunities are attractive for new recruitment and it is more likely to be able to maintain gifted staff by determining career paths for them. It can be noticed regularly at the workplace when it helps employees identify when they are ready for more responsibilities. Removing time to discuss an employee’s individual ambition will also help the organization spot and develop potential talent and build a strong heritage pipeline.

Culture of trust and openness
In today’s fastest business world, it is more important to maintain a meaningful, two-way dialogue with staff to help keep talent in your organization. One of the skilled entrepreneurs to get employees’ employment is assured that a voice of the employees and evaluation and performance review can help fuel meetings and staff share their views in discussions. They will encourage ideas to encourage ideas to influence innovation, and the relationship between developing open communication between the evaluation systems will enable employees to communicate with and discuss any ideas or topics beyond this meeting.

Support and training
Open discussions in performance provide an opportunity to identify issues and explore positive solutions. What additional training and support can be given to the managers to enable employees to feel proud of their results? Higher employment staffs may be supported by further training to help them progress on the next level of their career
Prevention of long-term dissatisfaction
Assessments are usually sliced, which can be raised in an assessment meeting, but they can be withdrawn before leaving. It is a great opportunity for an employee to raise any concerns or concerns or to discuss any other obstacles that they bring them back. Listen to the workers and take time to face any anxiety and create a happy employment and a culture of integrity and trust will continue to fuel.

Supporting staff to deliver an effective appraisal system
In order to work for the best effectiveness of evaluation and performance, managers need to be fully equipped to manage regular responses and ongoing performance. Investing in training for managers to provide an effective performance assessment with a pure approach is a worthwhile investment. Due to maintaining a natural management style, helping to develop Trust and Trust for building their free and transparent relationship and developing skills such as active hearing and performance assessment will help ensure a constructive evaluation system.

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2.6SEWING NEEDLE.FOR DEUIM PRODUCTION:
2.6.1 SEWING.NEEDLE
A.sewing.needle is.a long slender.tool with.a pointed.tip. The.needle must.be able.to penetrate the material.being sewn, by.pushing the yarns.aside according to the.application,.without.damaging it. Modern needles.are manufactured from,high carbon steel.wire, nickel.or.gold plated. For.corrosion resistance 12.

Figure 2.6.1 sewing needle
Sewing.needle is the basic,element for sewing.fabric and garment. There are.two types.of sewing needle, one for hand.sewing and another for sewing.machine. The major difference between.the two is the location of the “eye”. The hand.needle has.the.eye at the back end.of the needle and.that needle pulls the thread.through.the fabric. The machine needle has the.eye at the front end and that needle pushes the thread.through the fabric 13.

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2.6.2 Basic Features.of Sewing Needle:
The shank.is the.part of the needle that fits.into your sewing machine, with.the flat side to the back.The blade is.what.determines the needle size. (For example, a size needle.has a blade that is .75 mm in diameter.).The shaft is the “body” of the.needle, and the.groove that runs the length of the shaft holds the.needle thread.The point and.tip of the needle,refer to the size, shape and length all of which.vary based on the type of needle.The scarf.of the needle,is an.indentation on the backside.that allows the.bobbin hook to smoothly grab the thread under.the sewing machine.throat plate to.create a.proper.stitch 14.

Figure 2.6.2 features of sewing needle

2.6.3 NEEDLE FOR LYCRA DENIUM :
Ball.Points – Light.Ball Point is used.for sensitive fabrics such as knits, to.prevent.damage.to.the loops. This is crucial for maintaining.the fabric’s elasticity. Medium ballpoint.and heavy ballpoint.are used for.fabrics containing.stretchable.yarns. While sewing.the threads.are displaced not pierced. The needle pushes.between.the fabric.yarns rather.than “cutting.rough” the yards 15.

• Ballpoint needles
Ballpoint needle.for heavier, looser sweater.knits, highly elastic fabrics, like
Spandex, or Lycra. 16.

2.6.4 NEEDLE SIZING
There.are.two.needle sizing systems: American.and European. American needle.sizes.range from 8 to 19, and.European sizes.range.from 60 to 120. The larger.the.number, the larger the blade.of the needle. Often you will see.both sizing.numbers on the.needle package, such as 60/8.and 70/10 17.

Figure 2.6.4 Sewing Machine Needle Sizes
We are using dpx1 needle in our thesis work and needle size is 18.
• The American.system.uses 8 to 19, 8 being.a fine needle and 19 being.a thick heavy.needle.
• European sizes.range from.60 to 120, 60 being a fine needle.and 120 being a.thick heavy.needle 18.

2.8 STITCHING OF LYCRA DENIM:
The stitching process is the attachment.of different parts of the textile fabrics pieces. In this work place there are many operators.who perform single operation. All this factor decides what parts of textile fabric can be sewn.at that station21.

The stitching of denim jeans.is a labour intensive and complex process. Sewing machines used to process denim are.both interesting and complex 22.

• Stitching of inside seams
Joining the two pieces of textile.fabrics together face-to-face by sewing.through both
pieces, leaving a seam allowance.with raw edges inside the work. Machine stitching that
encloses the.raw edges.

• Stitching pocket hem
Stitching a hem on the.pocket opening, for example so that you first fold 1 cm to the.wrong
side and then again 2 cm, press.and stitch. The size.of the hem.can.vary a lot depending on
how the pocket.should look.

• Stitching zipper with J-stitch
A machine similar to the.pocket hem is used ,but this time topstitching.a zipper using a J-stitch .This operation is often semi-automated.and uses a programmable lock stitch sewing machine.to give a consistent shape because it is a highly visible section of the.garment.

• Stitching of side seams
Stitching the side.seams of the jeans together .The machine use for.his operaion also uses a tractor foot. This enables the machine to.climb excessive seam thicknesses where all the fabrics come.together in one join. It provides great.stability when clamping down on the fabric and reduces the possibility.of missed stitches.

• Bottom leg hems
In this operation the front.panel of denim jeans at the bottom side the hem is folded and stitched.

• Attaching waistband
Another important operation is attaching.the waistband to the main body of the jeans. The machine has two needles and the.waistband is fed through a continuous folder, thus reducing operator handling.

• Making belt loop
The fabric is folded through.a dedicated belt loop folder. The belt loops are fed through the.folder, producing a seam.

• Attaching belt loop
Belt loops on this garment are.attached using a semi-automatic belt looping machine. A continuous roll of finished.beltloop, is cut to length and a clamp holds the belt loop and presents it to the machine. Two needles are employed on this machine to sew.both ends of the belt loop in one operation. Again, operator handling is reduced where.only the body of the garment is held, making operation faster, more accurate and more efficient.

• Bar tacking for reinforcing
Exactly as for stitching the belt loop, this is a.similar machine but uses only one needle and is classified as a mechanised (fixed cycle) unit because when the treadle is pressed, the machine cycle cannot be interrupted until.the operation is finished.

• Pockets and labels
Semi automatic machines.require less human involvement and do more of the work autonomously .Such machines are used.to attach pockets and to attach labels to the jeans 22.

2.8.1 Seam efficiency
Seam efficiency mainly depends.upon the dimensional ; surface.characteristics of.the sewing thread, the tensile.behavior of denim fabrics ; sewing thread and the.machine ;.process parameters. It was reported previously be observed that with the increase.in Lycra.percentage the seam efficiency increases. The increase in seam.efficiency.with Lycra percentage is because of the higher elasticity and better compatibility.of the sewing thread with the denim, which subsequently increases the seam efficiency. This is in accordance with the.earlier result (i.e. The higher percentage of Lycra in the denim increases the fabric elasticity and.seam performance) obtained by Gurarda and Meric.

Seam efficiency is usually measured according to ASTM-D 1683 method on the.Instron tensile tester. Seam efficiency was calculated.as the percent seam strength over fabric strength by using the following formula 23.

Seamed fabric strength
—————————— X 100
Original fabric strength

We can use Seam efficiency.to measure the strength (durability) along the seam line. Durability is defined as necessary to satisfactory seam’s functional.performance, and efficient seams are assumed to be more durable.than weak ones.

• REFERENCE
12.https://www.textileschool.com/221/sewing-needles/
13.https://clothingindustry.blogspot.com/2018/02/problems-caused-sewing-needle.html
14.https://www.craftsy.com/sewing/article/how-to-choose-sewing-needles/
15.http://www.textileschool.com/221/sewing-needles/
16.http://www.threadsmagazine.com/2008/11/06/sewing-machine-needles-an-overview
17.www.craftsy.com/sewing/article/how-to-choose-sewing-needles/
18.https://www.thesprucecrafts.com/sewing-machine-needles-4122019
21.http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2017/07/sewing-section-garment-industry.htm
22.Denim manufacturing, finishing and application
23. Gurarda A and Meric B, “Sewing needle penetration forces and elastanefibre
damage during the sewing of cotton/elastane woven fabrics”, Text Res J, 75 (8), 628-
633(2005).

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