1.0 INTRODUCTION
The globalization has created a broad and wide economy opportunity for all the companies around the world to have access the global and dynamic market. In a constantly change business environment, it has make the companies to keep up with the emerging trends so that they are not left behind. According to Heather Hatty (2017), competing in the dynamic and global markets describes that fast moving of changes within the global markets on customer level and the competitor level. These dynamic and global environments is greatly influence the market. The global forces and trends tend to determine ho the companies interact with the customers and how they deal to the competition in marketplace.
The dynamic and global market affecting the company to focus on the sustainability of their business activities and compete with the competitors. This is because, the changing in the business environment contributes to the strengthening and maintain their marketing strategies in order to compete in the vast and fast moving environment in today’s business world. Besides that, the changing in the market also require the companies to create competitive advantage to attract and retaining their consumers and also need to acquire the information and knowledge of their competitors in the dynamic and global marketplace. This is due to keep their competitive position in the industry.
In the business world, there are two major competition which involving the non-traditional competitors and also traditional competitors. The traditional competitors are are companies that use method of direct marketing in which they can interact with the customers face to face in the business activities that involves the distribution of products and the transactions. On the other hands, non-traditional competitors are the companies that use new technology or non traditional methods of providing their products and services. In the growing trends of technology in the market, non-traditional competitors are said the most profitable in the world. This is because, with the coming of the digital era, we can see companies are emerging and forming the non-traditional methods in delivering their products and services to reach a wide customer.
Hence, how will these two competitors will compete in the dynamic and global markets in order to reach their consumers? The global markets are becoming more easily to access if these two competitors develop their marketing strategy effectively and efficiently to grab the opportunity and avoiding threats that impact their companies.?
2.0 DISCUSSION
Although the non-traditional competitors is said to be the most profitable companies in the business world and the digital technologies have changed the way of marketers doing business, however, not to forget also the traditional competitors in their contribution to the economy. The traditional competitors are also significant to compete in the dynamic market as they also have the strategies that enable them to compete against the non-traditional competitors. The traditional competitors can compete in the dynamic and global market because it still remains as a key lever in enhancing and promoting business.
The methods and strategies of the traditional competitors in order to compete in the dynamic market is by creating strong branding with customers (Ashley Orndorff, 2018). This tactic and techniques are still matter in the dynamic and global market because it can build a strong and cohesive brand that is always been important to business of a company. Through this method, customers will interacts with the business on various and multiple channels, the associations with the brand is more important because this will keeps the consumers’ experience with the company consistently across channels. Besides, the methods of localize offline (to build trust also an effective strategies of the traditional competitors in dealing with non-traditional competitors in the dynamic market. By localizing and market offline with the core consumers, they can stay on top of mind of their customers. This is because, they interact and engaged through direct marketing with the customers during the business transaction and this will leads to creates trust among the customers.
Moreover, traditional competitors implement the methods of putting the effort and invest in press in dealing with the non-traditional competitors. This is due to people still read news and advertising is still the most powerful strategy to connect with the potential customers. By investing in writing for good storytelling in the content and doing things that are newsworthy can reach the customers and drive them to engage with the brand directly. Hence, the implication of strategies of the traditional competitors in competing the non traditional competitors is it can provides and creates a positive customer experience on the offerings of the company and thus it will also increase the brand awareness. This is because, they able to have physical interact and engaging with the products which can capture their loyalty through the experiential marketing rather than through digital marketing. Furthermore, traditional competitors can create competitive advantage through their implemented strategies that differ from the non-traditional competitors.?
Non-Traditional competitor’s strategies depend on the new and unusual marketing methods. Anything that out from the categories of traditional marketing can be reflect on as competitors, but the term has typically referred to a more specific range of marketing tactics. The goal of competitors advertising is to create amazing advertising experiences that seizure attention through their creativity and unpredictably. Much of competitors require putting advertisement in ways, hoping to order the attention of natural or humble viewers (Marketing school, 2012).
Since the non-traditional competitors depend on many uncertain factors, it is important for any campaign to go through wary planning. Developing a comprehensive marketing plan does not make this strategy any more predictable, but it can help to focus on the efforts and maximize the possibility for success. The first strategy of the plan is to identify the target viewers. This important strategies helps to decide whether the competitors marketing method makes sense or not. If a product has mass retrial, something like a soda or movie release, marketers might plaster city streets with creative ads. But if the product has more limited retrial, software for accountants, for example, a widespread ad campaign would be a waste of resources. If they can recognize who will buy the product makes the target audience easier to reach. Hence, this will make the non-traditional competitors compete in the dynamic market.
Other than that, the next strategy will be to pick the competitors method that will be apply. The specific method employed has to be chosen carefully for the way it will impact consumers and the message that it will project. Companies will need to study market research and seek advice from branding experts to find the best way to place their advertising messages with their intentional customers. At this point, it may be necessary to consult deals for advertisement spaces in usual places. Non-traditional advertising frequently creates its own marketing channels. If the goal is to show ads in places where ads have never been before, this will need wary negotiation between the advertiser and the property owner.
The final strategy of a competitor’s plan will be to identify the metrics for success or failure. This can be the most difficult strategy because competitors often have scattered goals. Rather than only increasing sales, competitors can be used to redefine the image of a brand, or to introduce product lines to new demographics. Before any campaign is put into place, empirical guides need to be set up for judging the success of the campaign.

3.0 CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the use of the non-traditional competitors in the retail trade has increased and this had important impact on many clients’ buying process. One of the most problems that the business people are interested is the problem of growth and access to the non-traditional. This growth includes entertainment, e-commerce, e-banking and e-marketing. All cue point to both business and clients growing dependence on the non-traditional and its related processes in the whole world. Non-traditional has important feature on possibility to facilitate the information search for consumers. The process of product purchase is encouraged by giving permission to users in order to achieve greater quantities and more detailed information, it’s depend on the product features, prices, and the availability of a common value of the supply, especially when the non-traditional is used in concurrences of search of traditional marketing channels.
However, e-marketing has been suggested that the impact of the internet marketing was limited to simply creating a websites and using the non-traditional as a new tool for some support measures. Non-traditional lead to the changes in business and also in marketing. The non-traditional as a tool shapes the differences between traditional and competitors. Evaluation of the internet as the main e-marketing tool, it is required to compare the traditional marketing mix and 4C’s marketing model elements with new forms of these elements which are acquired online. The traditional competitors also will benefit the economy of a business because it still important to modern business.
Last but not least, the inspection of the affected competitors became clear that the decision may have move from the manufacturer to user side. Through marketing situation, the manufacturer will decide which products they want to produce, but now the consumer is a key element on determining the decision will be used. The main problem is no longer the production of the product but the problem is communication with the consumer. It takes time to build contacts, it is because the user is not a machine that in certain periods comes on the market and buy the unit of a systematize product. User is a person who wants attention, helpful services, spare parts, etc. Buying decision is no longer a decision of buying an item. It is the solution to create long-term relationship with the consumers in the market. Contrarily, the increase growth of opportunities of company are in emerging marketplace that filled with the unfamiliar customer needs, channel structures and also the political system.

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1.6 Stellar IMF- Variations in high stellar density
Variation in IMF is observed from region to region. Salpeter’s function gives a steep fall in the case of massive stars, i.e stars with masses greater than 5M?. Many authors have explored the IF in many situations – in the field versus in clusters, in galaxies with different morphologies etc. In 1979 Miller and Scalo derive a mass function of stars in the solar neighbourhood. They fitted it with a lognormal function and obtained a slope steeper than the Salpeter slope in the high mass region19.They made studies in the low mass region and came to the conclusion that the number of stars in the solar and sub-solar region in the solar neighbourhood is less than the extrapolated Salpeter mass function. In 1987 Rana proposed a mass function for the solar neighbourhood within a range of 0.08 to 100M?. As said earlier mass of a star is calculated from its luminosity, there should be a lower limit for the mass of a star to be detected. 0.1 M? is usually used as the lower mass limit of a star 20.
Results of previous works on the IMF are the following. In 1955 Salpeter found a power law function with slope ? ~ -1.35. He introduced the function based on the population of stars that could be observed in those days. At present the stellar population that is accessible to observations is somewhat different. Investigations of Scalo resulted in a function with slope ? ~ -1.7, for intermediate to high mass stars. Rana obtained a slope ? ~ -1.8 for M ; 1.6M?. Further studies leads to the conclusion, which says that slope of low density regions are steep and slope of high density regions, are shallow 21.

1.0 Psychological Factors
There are some psychological factors that influenced a person’s buying choices.
1.1 Motivation
Motivation is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need. Marketers put large amount of effort to figure out the motive behind a customer’s purchase to identify the stimuli that motives a person
1.2 Perception
Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. For example, AirAsia come out with the slogan- ‘Now everyone can fly’. They put this slogan in every advertisement, social media, billboard and online and it catch everyone eyes. When the consumers want to buy an airline ticket, AirAsia will be the first which come to mind.
1.3 Learning
As we all know, AirAsia owns by Tune group who also owns the hotel chain of Tune Hotel. They come out with a flight and hotel packages which they sell the airline tickets together with the hotel fares. Customers are able to travel in a cheaper and convenient way. There are also multiples hotel choices so the customer can choose different classification of hotels depends on their needs through AirAsia’s website. Customers learned that they are able to purchase air tickets and hotel fares through online.

1. Explain 1) your understanding of literacy and numeracy; 2) why a subject-specific understanding of literacy and numeracy is crucial to successful learning of the subject.
Consider the following points in your explanation:
• the functional model of language, in particular concepts such as register and genre
• discourse
• literacy capability in terms of

o the overarching literacy processes of comprehending texts through reading, viewing, and listening, and composing texts through speaking, writing, and creating
o the four areas of literacy knowledge that are used in the overarching literacy processes – text knowledge, grammar knowledge, word knowledge, and visual knowledge
• numeracy capability in terms of the elements of numeracy and the model of numeracy for the 21st century

2. Select one content description (if you are using the Australian Curriculum) or learning outcome (if you are using the NSW state syllabuses) in your subject area and describe the literacy and numeracy demands associated with the content description or learning outcome. Then show how you would engage with these literacy and numeracy demands to help your students achieve the learning of the content description or learning outcome.
3. Prepare a list of the references you cite in your essay. Submit your reference list as a separate file. Your reference list will not be counted in the word count. You in-text referencing will be counted in the word count.

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It has been argued by some that literacy and numeracy are inert terms with no growth or alteration therein. Literacy and numeracy, as outlined in this paper, are evolving contexts that adapt with the multimodal societies around them. My aim is to provide a holistic view of literacy and numeracy, explore how subject-specific literacy and numeracy are crucial in the successful learning of religious studies, promote the development of 21st century skills to 21st century learners in order to better integrate students in to the society they live in. And finally, provide a systematic approach to cover the literacy and numeracy demands within context.
Literacy at a glance:
Literacy and numeracy previously had static definitions with no scope or reach. Literacy, as a term, is a derivative from the Latin word ‘literatus’/’litteratus’ (literate) meaning educated, instructed and having knowledge of letters; it is dated to be circa 15th century. The word literacy is a tendril of this with the addition of the suffix ‘-cy’, however it is dated as early as 17th century denoting the ability to read and write. The word numeracy conversely, originated much later in 1957 from the Latin word ‘numeratus’ (number) patterned on the model of “literacy”. (“literacy | Origin and meaning of literacy by Online Etymology Dictionary”, 2018) It was therefore, defined by the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) as that which involves comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing, composing texts through speaking, writing and creating and ultimately promoting the skills to augment language to suit an intended purpose via all multimodal mediums in visual, audial or written forms. (ACARA, 2018) It is understood thus, that literacy in general, is to have the capability of comprehending and construing language to make meaning, while possessing the ability to communicate one’s inner emotions in a way that can be seen as confident and precise to one’s intentions.
Sociographical aspect of literacy:
In today’s global multimodal society though, the terms have more meaning than ever before with societies interpreting them in accordance to need and sociographic setting. Professor Michael Halliday, a modern-day linguist, epitomises this in his grammatical theory which categorises language as a social semiotic resource when writing: “A language is a series of redundancies by which we link our ecosocial environment to nonrandom disturbances in the air (soundwaves).” (Halliday ; Matthiessen, 2004), (Gee, 2003) A similar sentiment was expressed by Edward Sapir, an American anthropologist-linguist, almost a century earlier, in his work titled: “Language and Environment”. He argued that: “It is the vocabulary of a language that most clearly reflects the physical and social environment of its speakers.” (Sapr,1912) It can hence be reasoned, that the definition of literacy and numeracy maintain meaning defined by the social demographic for which they are intertwined. This leads to the ideological model of literacy, or multiliteracies nowadays, where literacy practices in a community apprentice the construction of identities in young subordinates. This surmisal comes not as a shock as such examples can be seen in day-to-day lives from within the social circles one associates with. (Gee, 1996) Literacy, or lack thereof, is a direct result of the coterie one is exclusive to and will amend inevitably with variation.
Literacy and numeracy within Religious Studies framework:
The meaning of literacy and numeracy within the religious education sector hence, has a contextual meaning rather than a strict disparate meaning. The meaning of literacy consequently includes the understanding and elucidations of religious texts (scriptures and commentaries), jargon and relative words and phrases. Such examples are numerous and ubiquitous in modern religious-literate societies as opposed to religious-illiterate ones. Some common examples of phrases and words include ‘apostle’, ‘atone for sins’, ‘Mount Sinai’, ‘omniscience’, ‘sacrifice’ and ‘Sufi’. In addition, the common theme with scripture-based discourse is that of narrative or command style and is always static, or frozen, in nature (Joos, 1962). It is similar with respect to particular verses and chapters for which modern day meanings may be resolved. Numeracy on the other hand when juxtaposed, is the clarifications of religious dates, timelines, numbers in scripture and their denotations (such as Bible references), symbols like those of stars, crescents, crucifixes and the like, as well as the contemplation of maps and geographical environments through their associated (relationship) meanings with the text they are in. Therefore, resulting in the ability to make decisions and judgements based on the information. (Crowe, 2010), (Geiger et al., 2014), (All Things St. Claire’s Comprehensive, 2016) The intended meanings of literacy and numeracy can thus, be deduced to be very different from the original meanings of being able to read, write and compute basic math problems. If such a definition was to be applied to the study of religious education, it would result in the inability to contexualise the literature albeit having the ability to read and write with aptitude for religious studies.
The difficulties faced by teachers and students in the religious studies sphere relating to literacy are just as complex as those in the numeracy aspects. The first challenge faced is that few teachers are focusing on religious areas compared to those of other fields and therefore, very few teachers are competent enough to teach religious studies to a high degree. Then, the literacy demands faced by teachers and students change as students move through the schooling system as the texts and commentaries will vary and become more theoretical and specialised throughout the years. (Moore, 2014) The intricacy of the texts is further affected by the density of ideologies and theoretic that may not be well grasped by either student or teacher. Such demands are only met when textual knowledge, grammatical knowledge, intercultural and contextual knowledge align within the reader or writer. The numeracy facet concurrently relates generally, to the capacity to construct and reflect on information in timelines, scriptural references and appropriate maps and diagrams. Such examples are prevalent in every religion and scripture from symbols to religious holy sites. Vince Geiger et al. (2015) assembled a model to aid teachers in the enhancement of learning across the curriculum which will be very useful if implemented accurately when teaching about religion.

Application of a systematic model for 21st century learners:
The topic of focus is the story of Moses in Abrahamic faiths. I have chosen this because it is relatable through the three Abrahamic beliefs and many derivations can be taken from it. It is seen as a narrative of devotion, sacrifice and selflessness to which every student (and teacher) can find meaning.
It must be noted here, that religious studies is a subject that must be viewed through different perceptions and dated commentaries on original sources must be taken in to consideration when making judgements.
Constructing an educational atmosphere:
It is to be emphasised in the first lesson, or session, that the main learning outcome is: a. to establish a learner-centered environment for all; b. to create an unbiased view of religions and scriptures; and c. to integrate religious studies in to other fields (biodiversity).
Learning-centered pedagogy:
The first class will be an introduction to the program with some basic questions surrounding preexisting knowledge. A group activity of two-four students will be set where students are required to write down any former knowledge in dot points and what they plan to take away from the class. Then finally, a class response dialogue as to the modes of learning best suited to the topic with discussion of integrated ICT aspects (interactive graphs, diagrams, possible individual or group project). Furthermore, a discussion as to the lenses one may approach the study with.
Cultural view to religious studies:
A cultural standpoint will be in order to eradicate any religious bias tendencies. For example, common vocabulary used within all three scriptures will be used interchangeably with no preference given. Subsequently, lending a neutral approach to the topic. It also important for students to recognise that many biases are relative to certain individuals and allow students to draw on their contextual knowledge to shape their own philosophies; without creating a context it is possible to engender anxiety and defensiveness over specific issues. The ultimate objective here is to create a viewing periscope through which students can analyse a religious situation and confront it culturally rather than emotionally (within a context). An application of this may be to construct a historical map of Egypt detailing the journey made by Moses and his followers with accurate terminologies and designations including measurements and distances.
Integration through religious studies:
With the foundations set, the theme of religion will continue to be discussed throughout the course. The course will offer students several opportunities to analyse religion in shaping societies/cultures within the historical context and today’s modern world. This might be achieved through worksheets and classroom discussions about the themes covered. Furthermore, it will give them the chance to distinguish between religion as devotional and spiritual practices and religion as a source for geosocial morals and norms.
Conclusion:

The discourse, for example, in scriptures are of two main categories: a. narrative and b. command. This format is then emphasised with the use of register. Martin Joos described the language of religious scripture, such as Biblical quotations, as unchanging and “frozen”.

will be unable to read, learn, understand and teach religious education without being “literate” in these aforementioned fields.

In this essay I aim to provide a holistic view of literacy and numeracy within subject-specific learning outcomes and the demands that religious studies in particular requires one to have.

and strictly referred to the comprehension of words, while numeracy refers to the ability to compute basic sums that may occur in day-to-day life.

Literacy is the nomenclature used to describe two key components: a. Comprehending and interpreting texts, b. Composing texts whether that is through the visual medium, writing or speaking

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