1. Chocolate is a natural anesthetic
Every time a regular piece of chocolate gets into our stomach, the cocoa contained in it causes a small injection of the elixir of happiness into our brain. This is due to the development of additional endorphins (natural opiates) and the activation of the pleasure centers of the brain, which can even lead to a reduction in real pain sensations .

2. Melting chocolate slices in the mouth causes a more pleasant sensation than a kiss
In 2007, researchers from the University of Sussex studied the heart rate and brain waves in 20 couples during a kiss, and then during their eating of chocolate. In all cases, chocolate in the mouth caused a more intense reaction than someone else’s tongue!

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3. Chocolate makes your skin younger
German researchers suggest that flavonoids in chocolate absorb ultraviolet light, which can really help protect the skin from aging and increase its blood flow to it. In the long run, this results in significant rejuvenation and improvement of your skin .

4. It is a reliable source of energy
Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which increase the level of your energy. The darker the chocolate, the more energy you get. And, unlike any energy drinks, chocolate does not lead to a catastrophic drop in energy in a few hours.

5. The use of chocolate was previously condemned by the Catholic Church
In the action of chocolate, witchcraft and seduction were seen, and his lovers were all considered to be blasphemers and heretics . Probably there is something in this, is not it?

6. You can even smell chocolate
Here in this study it was proved that even a simple smell of chocolate increases theta brain waves that cause relaxation. Comparing the effect of the smells of different foods, scientists came to the conclusion that only chocolate fluids have a pronounced relaxation effect.

7. Chocolate makes us smarter
A 2006 study showed that eating foods that have a high cocoa content within five days can increase blood flow to the brain, thereby improving its performance. Therefore, it is not surprising that people who have chocolate in their diet are much better able to understand and stay clear for longer.

8. Chocolate does not harm your teeth
In 2000, Japanese scientists established that chocolate is less harmful to the health of your teeth than many other sweet foods. This is because the antibacterial properties of cocoa beans compensate for a relatively high level of sugar.

9. In the Mayan civilization, cocoa beans were a currency
The value of the goods at that time was expressed in the amount of cocoa beans that could be obtained for them. The slave cost 100 beans, the services of a prostitute were estimated at 10 beans, and 20 beans were asked for a turkey. There were also counterfeiters who made fake beans from painted clay.

10. Chocolate is stored forever (in the right conditions)
The chocolate bar, found in the parking lot of the legendary Admiral Richard Byrd near the South Pole, is very well preserved. Despite the past 60 years, it is quite usable.

11. Chocolate gives us the vision of superheroes
According to a study published in the journal Physiology ; Behavior , a large piece of dark chocolate can help us better distinguish between low contrast objects. These are, for example, cars in bad weather or pedestrians wearing dark clothes in the evening.

12. Reducing the risk of diabetes
Flavonoids, contained in cocoa, have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce the risk of developing diabetes by increasing the sensitivity to insulin.

13. Chocolate helps to lose weight
Scientists from the University of Copenhagen found that eating dark chocolate causes a feeling of satiety and helps reduce the consumption of other sweet, salty and fatty foods. Thus, thanks to chocolate it is much easier to stick to a healthy diet and lose extra pounds!

14. Increased libido
According to Italian researchers, women who regularly eat chocolate have a much more intense sex life. They have a higher level of attraction, excitement and satisfaction from sex.

What a great news, is not it? There is, however, one important detail that must be taken into account. The fact is that not all chocolate is equally useful. In dark chocolate contains twice as much antioxidants than in milk. In addition, dark chocolate gives us less calories than milk chocolate, which has a high content of saturated fats and calories simply because it contains milk.

If you want to really benefit from chocolate, then always choose dark chocolate containing at least 70% cocoa.

1. Basketball is the invention of Canadians.
2. Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia).
3. Hockey and Lacrosse are Canada’s national sports.
4. To obtain Canadian citizenship, it is necessary to live on its territory for 3 years in legal status.
5. Macaroni with cheese (macaroni and cheese) – the most popular type of product in Canada.
6. Canadians drink a lot of coffee.
7. In Canada, the most beautiful view is of Niagara Falls.
8. Largest Sikh community outside of India is in Canada.
9. Canada have largest French-speaking community outside of France and the largest community of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine.
10. With a Canadian passport, you can visit 164 countries around the world without a visa or by on arrival visa.
11. The most commercially successful Canadian film is a youth comedy about the first sexual experience, called “Porky’s”. With a budget of $ 4 million, the film grossed more than $ 105 million.
12. 2/3 of total world’s Cesium is produced in one mine situated in province of Manitoba.
13. IMAX cinemas, electric wheelchairs and many more are the invention of Canada.
14. Canada became an independent country in 1982.
15. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada.
16. Della falls is the highest waterfall in Canada.
17. English and French is the official language of Canada.
18. Approximately 80.5% of homes in Canada are connected to the Internet.
19. The area of Canada is more than 9.98 million square meters.
20. Canada has more internal lakes and rivers than any other country in the world.
21. 2.2% of Canada’s total area is occupied by 42 National Parks.
22. Canada is a major producer and consumer of cheese.
23. Canada is on the list of the world’s largest suppliers of gold, copper, zinc, nickel, aluminum, and natural gas.
24. More than three percent of Canada’s residents donate blood every year.
25. Canada ‘s highest peak is Mount Logan (5,959 m).
26. Canada has 15 World Heritage sites.
27. 42% of Canada’s population has a higher education.

28. In Canada there is only one desert, in which there are more than 100 rare plant species and more than 300 rare animals.
29. 2.4 million reindeers live in Canada.
30. The Canadian flag depicts a maple leaf with 11 peaks.
31. About half of the population sleep less than 8 hours a day, because they want to stay longer at work.
32. in Nunavut lives about 55% of population of polar bears.
33. More than 42% of Canadians are Catholics, 23% are Protestants.
34. More than 14 thousand windows in the two towers of the Royal Bank of Canada in Toronto are covered with a thin layer of gold of the highest standard. This is done to reduce the cost of heating the buildings.
35. They used 70 kilograms of gold for a total of about one million dollars.
36. After World War II, many children protested in Canada, dissatisfied with the sharp rise in prices for sweets.
37. The total population of Canada is around 36 million.
38. Ten percent of Canadian residents claim that they once saw a UFO.
39. Canada – one of the recognized world leaders in the supply of agricultural products (especially cereals).
40. In 1960, it was discovered that some part of Canada has less gravity than the other part of the world.
41. The Hawaiian Pizza is the invention of Canada.
42. State symbols of Canada are beaver.
43. People of Churchill don’t lock their car doors in case their neighbors need to make a quick escape from polar bears.
44. Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake are in the list of ‘Top 10 Largest Lakes in The World’.
45. 90% of population of Canada resides near the Canada-US border.
46. Canada is famous for Ice Wine.
47. Northwest territories of Canada have license plate in shape of polar bear.
48. The Canada-US border is the longest international border in the world.
49. there are about 250accidents annually due to the fault of moose.
50. The first explorer to reach Canada was John Cabot, in 1497.
51. The CN Tower, which rises 555 meters, is one of the tallest building in the world.
52. Canada had also contributed in medicine- insulin was isolated in University of Toronto, stem cell discovery and many more.
53. Canada has the largest coastline in the world.
54. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of State in Canada.
55. The world’s smallest jail is in Canada (270 square feet).
56. Every year on Christmas about 1 million letters are received at the address of Santa Claus.
57. Santa Claus postal code is HOH OHO, North Pole, Canada.
58. In Canada there are 200 species of mammals.
59. Yonge Street of Canada is the longest street in the world.
60. In Canada about 280,000 new permanent residents were welcomed in 2010.
61. July 1st is celebrated as Canada Day.
62. Famous celebrities like Justin Bieber, Ryan Gosling, Jim Carrey, Ryan Reynolds are from Canada.
63. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
64. There are six time zones in Canada.
65. About 22% of population of Canada is immigrants.
66. The average life expectancy for males and female is 80 and 84 respectively.
67. Canada hosted Olympic Games for three times.
68. Literacy rate of Canada is 99%.
69. The longest fresh water beach in the world- Wasaga beach is in Canada.
70. There are ten provinces and three Territories.

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1.1 introduction Consumer buying behaviour is a process of choosing, purchasing, using and disposing of products or services by the individuals and groups in order to satisfy their needs and wants (Solomon, 1995). Similar definition of consumer buying behaviour is offered by (Chiffman, Hansen and Kanuk, 2007) in which they describe consumer behaviour as behaviour that consumers express when they select and purchase the products or services using their available resources in order to satisfy their needs and desires. Furthermore (Kotler and Keller , 2011) highlight the importance of understanding consumer buying behavior and the ways how the customers choose their products and services can be extremely important for manufacturers as well as service providers as this provides them with competitive advantage over its competitors in several aspects. Consumer behaviour is very complex because each consumer has different mind and attitude towards purchase, consumption and disposal of product (Solomon, 2009). Understanding the theories and concepts of consumer behaviour helps to market the product or services successfully. As there is constant change in the living standards, trend, fashion and change in technology; consumer’s attitude towards the purchase of product varies (Kumar, 2004).
The consumer behaviour or buyer behaviour is influenced by several factors including psychological factors, social factors, cultural factors, economic factors, personal factors (Armstrong, 2008). Recession is one of the economic factors that affect consumer behaviour. Recession is defined as a period of falling economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than six months (Amadeo, 2017). Recession is further defined with factors or dimensions which are personal income, employment, real gross domestic product, inflation and exports and imports (Vincent, 2006). In times of recession every rupee matters and hence the consumers use greater discretion before making the purchase decisions (Vincent, 2006). Rise in prices of food items and basic necessities of life due to inflation, unemployment, and low gross domestic product (GDP) creates a pre-recessionary situation which slowly and gradually affects the buying behavior of consumer of every market (Furnham, 1999). Any nation going through the period of recession faces not only an internal resistance from its business sector and but also an external pressure from foreign bodies. It becomes almost impossible for low income earners to fulfill their basic requirements of daily life (Furnham, 1999). People are historically forced to cut down on their consumptions (Attanassio and Szekely , 2001). An investigation of consumer behaviour in times of crisis such as recession is a very important subject to study. More particularly studies on the effects of the economic crisis on young people are limited. Although young consumers do not have a steady source of income, they represent a large group of active consumers (Furnham, 1999).
1.2 Problem statement Previous studies (Attanassio and Szekely , 2001) indicates that recession has a negative impact on employment and income. The effects of recession vary according to age (Furnham, 1999). In the study by (Mackenzie, 2004) indicates that purchasing behaviour of young people found in Argentina were more prone to recession than that of adults. Generally young people do not have a steady source of income (Furnham, 1999) , which means it becomes very difficult for them to cope with recession elements such as inflation and unemployment. Therefore the research will benefit young people in a sense that they learn how to cope and appreciate the effects of recession.
1.3. Purpose and objectives The purpose of this study is to investigate the patterns of students purchasing behaviour and how it changes during recession in Botswana. The study was triggered by the recent inflation rates and how this affects the purchasing behaviour of young people in Botswana. The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. investigate the average expenditure of students during recession in Botswana, Gaborone 2. investigate the frequency of purchase of students during recession in Botswana, Gaborone 3. the choice of retail formats by students during recession in Botswana, Gaborone
1.4. Significance of the study The study will adopt the consumer perspective rather than an economic perspective. This is because past researches aimed at helping businesses gain better understanding of economic crisis. This study will help students find better ways of spending limited income during recession and minimize the negative effects recession has on the purchasing behaviour of young people.
1.5 scope of the study This study sought to assess impact of recession on consumer’s decision making process precisely the purchase stage among the youth. The study will be carried out in Gaborone Botswana, which comprises of 57 parliamentary constituencies (Barry Morton & Jeff Ramsay, 2018). The research will focus on 18 176 youth population in institutions of higher learning namely University of Botswana. In conducting this study, the limitations that will be experienced may include the unwillingness of the respondents to provide required information, the quality of data collected errors. These limitations will be mitigated by use of introductory statements to clearly explain the purpose of the study while at the same time guaranteeing the respondents of utmost confidentiality of their personal information.
2.0. Literature Review 2.1Consumer behavior Consumer buying behaviour is defined as a set of activities which involves the purchase and use of goods and services which resulted from the customers’ emotional and mental needs and behavioral responses (Stallworth 2008). Consumer behaviour contain different activities and stages (Gabbot, 1998). Studying consumers provides insight for improving or introducing products or services, setting prices, devising channels, crafting messages, and developing other marketing activities (Armstrong, 2008).The definition formed by (Solomon, 1995) describes consumer buying behaviour as a process of choosing, purchasing, using and disposing of products or services by the individuals and groups in order to satisfy their needs and wants. Similar definition of consumer buying behaviour is offered by (Chiffman, Hansen and Kanuk, 2007) in which they describe it as behaviour that consumers express when they select and purchase the products or services using their available resources in order to satisfy their needs and desires.

1. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as a state religion.
2. Christianity is a monotheistic religion.
3. Christianity is the largest religion in the world.
4. There are about 2.1 million people who practice Christianity.
5. Christian Bible is the holy book of Christianity, which has Old Testament and New Testament.
6. Cross is the symbol of Christianity.
7. Christianity was founded in Jerusalem in 1st century AD.
8. The important holidays for Christians are Christmas and Easter.
9. There is still a debate that who is the founder of Christianity- Jesus or Paul?
10. Jesus Christ has more influence on the world than any other political leader, king etc.
11. The sacred texts of Christianity are written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.
12. In Lebanon, it is a rule to have Christian President.
13. Between 4th to 6th century, Christianity was the major religion in Egypt.
14. The US has the largest population of Christian in the world.
15. It is believed that Christianity was the part Judaism.
16. Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God and born to bring light to the world.
17. Most of the early Christians believe in reincarnation.
18. Jesus Christ was a Jew and was raised in a Jewish family.
19. In Israel, there is one interesting museum. It shows the culture of all peoples that are mentioned in the Bible.
20. there are over 40,000 denominations in Christianity.
21. The four main denominations are-Catholic Church, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
22. Roman Catholic Christians make approximately half the population of Christians.
23. The Main Holy Rite in Christianity is baptism.
24. There are 800 million Protestant in the world.
25. the bible is the most sold book and also the most shoplifted book in the world.
26. Many scholars believe that Jesus Christ was only reforming Judaism, there was no thought of creating a new religion.
27. Early Christians were called atheists by Romans because they did not worship their pagan gods.
28. Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro is the largest church in the world.
29. Most Christians of the world (64%) live in cities.
30. In mid-2013, 2.355 billion Christians lived on earth.
31. Christians have believed that Christ will return to the earth.
32. Christianity is the fastest growing religion in Iran.
33. Christ is not the last name of Jesus, it is just a title, he had no last name.
34. World’s first church was built in 230 A.D. in Jordan.
35. Christian atheists don’t believe that Jesus was ‘son of God’, they believe that he was a philosopher and a humanitarian.
36. Monastery of St. Simon the Tanner in Mokattam is the largest church in the Middle East and is built in a cave.
37. In the bible, it is written that Jesus was a resurrection.
38. Christians believe that God created the world in just six days.
39. Christianity teaches to believe in hell and heaven.
40. Christianity became legal in the fourth century.
41. 180 Christians are killed every month for their faith.
42. Many scholars believe that Jesus lived on earth for 30-40 years.
43. The tallest statue of Jesus is in Western Poland, it is 108 feet tall.
44. The writers of Bible include doctors, fishermen, prisoners, priests etc.
45. The tallest church building is inUlm, Germany and is called Ulm Minister.
46. Christ the Redeemer Statue in Rio de Janeiro is the most famous religious statue in the world.
47. The New Testament tells about the life and teachings of Jesus.
48. There is an empty tomb next to the tomb of Muhammad reserved for Jesus.
49. There are 7 churches in Antarctica.
50. Mention of Jesus in Quran is more than Muhammad.
51. North Korea is one of the worst countries to follow Christianity.
52. Bible is translated into more than 3,000 languages.
53. It is an estimation that till 2050, every 6 out of 10 people will be Muslim or Christian.
54. Places of worship for Christians are church, chapels, basilica, cathedrals and meeting halls.
55. In Quran, it is mention that on the cross someone died on the place of Jesus
56. In 2010 the Catholic Church had an income of US$97 billion.
57. Once a dead Pope was put on trial in Catholic Church.
58. Visitors to church in China on Sunday is more than the visitors of whole Europe.
59. Billy Graham enlightened more than 200 million people to Christianity.
60. There are 39 books in Old Testament and 27 in New Testament in Bible.


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