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1.2 The speaker analyses the raindrops to class working individuals, or steers. He watches the workers arriving at random times(Simile). The common labourers are much the same as dairy cattle. Gradually at first however at that point, much like raindrops that start to strengthen before an overwhelming deluge, “as a downpour”. The speaker utilizes a simile imagery to make the impact of hurrying of individuals on a prepare station (like grouping cows into their post) and being compelled to do work (let the dairy cattle eat to create sustenance.)
1.3 The speaker is alluding to a collective loss of character under the debilitating requests of the white framework and strengthens the disharmony between dark subjectivity and urban scenes. The pictures here appear to inspire a homogenous, undifferentiated mass, a “solitary mask less face”; the dark body is automated by the white state as a working article. Sepamla’s weight on the workings of the dark body (palpitating hearts, clicking tongues, giggling, and grousing mouths) affirms its mankind.
1.4.1 In the second stanza, as the speaker demonstrates delineates to common loss of character under summons of the white framework. He watches that it is an expansive crown yet everybody is separated from everyone else “I’ve viewed the hoards rub shoulders” (Line 17). This suggests that being part of a crowd does not bring comfort/is not reassuring/does not guarantee an escape from loneliness. Presently the speaker sees every suburbanite forlornness. He likewise thinks about whether the main individuals who are the most in the prepare are black, how much lonelier are they going to be the point at which they get the chance to work (White state).
1.4.2

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Question 2

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Miss Helen Martins, an elderly South African widow and a gifted labourer. Miss Helen lives alone in the town of New Bethesda, where her odd figures have served to segregate her from her neighbors. Since her loved one’s passing, her work has changed into the ground-breaking purpose of union of Miss Helen’s life, bringing her an assumption of satisfaction that was missing already, when she lived as a standard individual from society. Since she is curving up sensibly unfit to regulate with no other individual, her wellspring of imagination appears at an end, and she is looked with a supposition of lack of definition and hopelessness that undermines every now and then to overpower her. In this paper we will look at how Athol Fugard researches the subject of craftsmanship and opportunity through his delineation of Helen’s innovative trek and system’s reaction to it.

A fundamental topical idea of this play is about the exceptional quality found in particular classy verbalization. Miss Helen lives in a Christian social request that is outlined as covering and even harmful. Miss Helen’s marriage is proposed in that light also. It’s basically after Miss Helen’s loved one passes on that she starts to make her model garden. This presentation is her “Mecca.” It is her place of great congruity. She discovers significance, bliss, heading, and clearness through her magnificent freedom. An extensive number people in her locale don’t comprehend it, nor do they fortify it in any capacity; regardless, not many individuals will go into the discourse with her. Elsa is one of the characters that enters the trade, and Miss Helen endeavours to reveal her perspectives to Elsa with the running with declaration:

“It is the rule reason I have for being alive is my Mecca. Without that I’m nothing . . . an insignificant old lady driving everybody up the divider . . . in addition, that is unequivocally what I have begun to feel like. ”

Miss Helen’s Mecca has given her motivation once more. Looking Mecca satisfies her, and being able to apply control over it and diagram it in like way satisfies her. The flexibility of her imaginative clarification is her new sort of critical love. Elsa obviously acknowledges this idea, since it is Elsa that splendidly reveals it to Marius:

“Those statues out there are mammoths. Also, they are that for the immediate reason that they express Helen’s flexibility. Truly, I never thought it was a word you may require. I’m certain it positions as a cardinal sin in these parts. A liberated individual! God pardon us! ”

Marius at first shows up, clearly, to be worried over Miss Helen’s association with the social occasion. That looks great since he is a minister; regardless, through Elsa’s light and the satisfaction that he finds in Miss Helen, Marius can comprehend Miss Helen’s kind of intensity. He is a charmingly adjusted character since he ends up indicating looks at that he assumes for the most part about Miss Helen’s euphoria.

After Helen’s loved one passed on, it is the time when that she started making the figures in her garden with the assistance of two men who helped her to bond her distinguishing strength. These developed models were basically creatures, for example, owls, camels and differing winged animals including mermaids which tremendously interfaces with the social and political condition the producer is portraying remembering that every last one of the figures were confronting east towards the Mecca. The Meccas, is the capital of the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia as it is the respected city of the religion of Islam. Subsequently, Mecca is the photograph of an imperative or individual target. As Mecca is coordinated in the desert nation, individuals utilized camels as system for transport as the can travel long segments without water. As the owl was her first creature she had on her innovative essentialness, symbolized the information of understanding what society has ahead of time dismissed and been in a debate with. At long last, the glasses she used symbolizes ecstasy and clarity as they reflect light.

Fugard demonstrates that the veritable gifted labourer who foresees that open entryway will make can rapidly wind up repulsed from society. After the destruction of her life accomplice, Helen reacts to the motivation she feels to make her models as opposed to the needs for her locale. Instead of going to place of petition and expecting the bit of the unwavering woman, Helen skips church since it never made her vibe awakened the manner by which the display of creation does. This decision starts to disturb even insult her territory, and they as time goes on ask for her sensible soundness and how safe it is for her to live alone. Entrusting Helen to an old people’s home would engage them to keep supporting their conviction that she rejects social benchmarks, not in light of there is anything out of request with the guidelines themselves, anyway since she isn’t of sound character. In a way, they have to accept that Helen is the issue, not them. In any case, the gifted labourer must have opportunity, and Helen’s versatility appears to freeze them. She doesn’t fit in, and she bothers their considerations as for what is normal for a lady or a lady to do.

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UNIT 3

CHAPTER 1

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INTRODUCTION TO THEATRE

 

Why Theatre? Perhaps, that’s the
question you may ask. What has theatre to do with Animation? We all know that
Theatre is telling a story on stage with actors performing live! Isn’t it? In
Animation too, we tell a story through actors, though not through ‘real’
actors, but through actors created out of our imagination! The actors in
Animation are what we call Characters! And we need these Characters to act
well. Isn’t it? And hence, Theatre! Through Theatre, we may learn a few lessons
about acting and staging that may help us in creating a better Animation.

What is Theatre?

Theatre is a form of fine art that uses live performers or actors to present the
experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific
place, often a stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the
audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance. Other
elements of art such as painted sceneries and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the theatre
experience.

Elements
of Theatre:

1) Performers
2) Audience
3) Director
4) Theater
Space
5) Design
Aspects (scenery,
costume, lighting, and sound)
6) Text or
Script (which includes focus, purpose, point of view, dramatic structure,
and dramatic characters)

 

1) Performers – The people
or actors presenting a story onstage through various characters are the
performers. When the actor/actress is on stage, they must be true to the
character they are portraying. The roles they are playing have to be
convincing and easy to relate to, in order to interest the audience.

 

2) Audience – The essence of theatre is the
interaction between the performer and audience. Theater needs to be
experienced live. The audience determines whether a production is successful,
therefore, it is very important to keep them interested in the play or
performance being staged by giving strong performances and presenting engaging
stories.

 

3) Director – The director
makes certain that the performers understand the text and deliver the
script efficiently. The director helps to bring all the elements together – the
actors, the stage effects and the script.

 

4) Theater Space- Another
necessary element of theater is the space in which performers or audiences
come together. It is essential to have a stage, or a specific area, where the
actors can perform. It is also essential to have a place for the audience
to sit or stand comfortably.

 

 

5) Design Aspects – Visual
Aspects – costumes, lighting, and some form of scenic background 
Nonvisual Aspect – sound.

 

6)
Text – A text or a
script is needed for theatre to be performed. One key element for writing is
‘conflict’ – the characters should have a goal to reach, for doing that they
have to go through a series of conflicts. Without conflict, the story would be
too straightforward and boring. So think on those lines as well – how can the
script be made more interesting?

STAGING

Staging is the process of selecting, designing, adapting to, or
modifying the performance space for a play or film. It implies
the presentation of a film or a play in a manner that will help in narrating/performing
the story in a clear and attractive way to the intended audience. This can
include such things as positions of actors on stage (often referred to
as blocking), their gestures and movements, the scenic background, the
props and costumes, lighting, and sound effects. The first thing that the
audience of a play sees is the stage set, the physical objects that
suggest the world of the play. The stage set is usually determined or
recommended by the Playwright
(the person
who writes Plays), but the degree of detail and specificity vary from one
playwright to another and from one literary period to another. In film, staging
is generally called set dressing.

ACTING

Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of
its enactment by
an actor  who adopts a character, be it in theatre, television, film, radio, or mimicry.

Acting involves a broad range of skills, including a
well-developed imagination, capacity to understand emotions, physical expressiveness, vocal
projection, clarity of speech, and the
ability to interpret drama. Acting also demands an ability to employ dialects, accents, improvisation, observation
and emulation, mime, and stage combat. Many actors train for a long
period of time in specialist programs or Acting Schools to develop these
skills. The vast majority of professional actors have undergone extensive
training.

REHEARSING

Rehearsal is a process in which actors prepare and practice a
performance, exploring the conflict between characters, testing
specific actions in the scene, and finding means to convey a particular sense.
Some actors continue to rehearse a scene throughout the run of a show in order
to keep the scene fresh in their minds and engaging for the audience.

5 Basic Acting Rules

Let us now learn the a few
basic rules to be followed to be a better Actor:

1. Who are you playing? What is the character that you
are playing? Know your character in detail; how he/she thinks and feels, what
is the body language that is characteristic to the role you are playing? How
the character talks; does he/she use hand movements while talking? How he/she
walks? What is the temperament of the character? Is he/she a jolly person or an
angry one?

Watch performances of actors closely, in films, television and theatre. Watch
people in real life, how each person thinks and talks, watch their body language
in different situations, and yes don’t forget to watch yourself in different
situations; that’s the best ground to learn acting!

2. Where are you? Remember
to take a moment before you begin acting to establish in your imagination
exactly where you are. The environment is a crucial stimulus. It takes a brief
moment to orient yourself into the place. Without that connection it can
sometimes be very hard to see anything other than the audition room.

3. What is your relationship? You
should have a good sense of who you are speaking to and what they mean to you.
Accordingly, the various actors relate to one another.

4. What is happening? What
is the main event? What is the main essence of what is going on? Knowing this
keeps you from going off in a different direction from the scene as given in
the script.

5. Where are you coming from? This
is to be understood in both emotional and physical aspects. The actors have to
be clear how they link themselves to the previous and subsequent scenes,
otherwise they will not have a sense of direction.

6. What are you doing? Your
character is there to do something.
This something must be active, it must support your objective, and it must lead
to another thing. It must push the scene forward. Otherwise you are merely
giving words and not depicting actions.

Let us now look at another Performing Art Form that
may help us in becoming better actors and Animators- Mimicry!

MIMICRY

In biology, we know that a mimic is any
living species that has evolved to resemble another successful species. But in
Animation, to mimic or Mimicry is the process of observing and replicating
another’s behavior, also called imitation in entertainment.

A
Mimic is defined as a performer who imitates a person for amusing or satirical
effect.

Elements
Of Mimicry 

1)THE
HEAD

The movements of the head are
of vital importance in mimicry. For example,

·        
A drooping head indicates shame and grief.

·        
Nodding the head vertically denotes approval.

·        
Shaking the head sideways signifies dissent.  

The forehead
gives the best indication of one’s intelligence and intellectual development. In
the forehead the most active and independent muscles are located, controlling
attention, doubt, reflection, pain, etc.

2)THE
EYES

The eyes are capable of expressing nearly all the states of mind
and of human passion. They seem to be the most expressive of all the parts of
the body. This body part can express both noble sentiments and high spirits as
well as hate, jealousy, and other negative feelings. They are called the
mirrors of the soul since they can communicate a wide range of emotions and
mental states.

3)THE NOSE

The nose has a great importance in mimicry, as it is a major
element of aesthetics. In spite of the fact that it is one of the least movable
parts of the face, it helps a lot in expressing various feelings, especially
those in which, the respiratory system is involved, like when depicting anger
or agitation, or fear. The act of breathing and the expansion of the nostrils
are linked. In fear or anger, when the breathing is affected, the nostrils
become dilated or constricted. It also helps in depicting the expressions of pride,
haughtiness and arrogance. In these expressions the nose is active.

4)THE MOUTH ,LIPS, CHEEKS, CHIN AND JAW

The mouth is one of the most expressive parts of the face. The
mouth has various muscles used for chewing, for speech and song and is very
powerful in expression (especially the corners of the mouth that are raised
upwards in expressions of high spirits and fall in expressions of low spirits).

For example,

·        
In joy, satisfaction, contentment, and other such positive
emotions, the corners of the mouth curl upwards, thus producing a smile.

·        
In sorrow, disappointment, moral pain, fear, etc., they turn down.

THE EARS

The ear is of great importance in the analysis of a character, in
theatrical mimicry it is of little service to the actor. It is one of the least
expressive parts of the body, rarely movable. Therefore, all the actor should
know about the ears is in the part of make-up.

THE ARMS AND HANDS

The
shoulder, the forearm, and the hand, with its fingers, are the contributors to
hand gestures. Hand gestures should never be stiff or artificial, nor try to
express that which belongs purely to facial mimicry. For example,

 

·        
A disappointment at a bit of news, causes the arms to drop
heavily.

·        
In anger, the closed fists are projected toward the sky or the
object of anger or hatred.

THE TRUNK AND BREATHING ACTION

The trunk is of importance in the expression of many emotions. In
fear, it instinctively contracts, as it also does in admiration. In love, it
expands, as though inclining towards the object of love; in hate, it shrinks
back. The entire trunk movements have an influence upon the breathing organs,
resulting in accelerated breathing in moments of happiness and joy; irregular
breathing in hate and anger; and in near paralysis in moments of fear and
terror, etc.

THE FEET

It is not
advised to rest the body on both feet equally, for, besides creating
uncomfortable positions, the actor will find difficulty when it is necessary to
take a step forward, some-times to the extent of looking extremely ridiculous. If
the body is supported on one foot, he can readily place the other in position
when the action so requires. The feet are the principal factors in movements,
such as walking, dancing, etc.

WALKING

The
walk should be according to the character represented and, therefore, should
have as much purpose as any other action. Although the walk should always be
natural, easy, never stiff, there are well-defined differences between the
walks to be used in comedy and in tragedy. In comedy, the walk is lively, the
steps are short, quick, swinging. In tragedy, the walk consists of
well-measured, sustained steps, heavy, long and mysterious.

KNEELING

Kneeling rapidly and at the same time on both feet is good only
for comic effect. To kneel with grace, it is necessary to take one step forward
and rest the body on the forward foot until the second knee touches the ground.
When picking up an object from the ground, act in the same way.

MANNER OF BEING SEATED

The manner of taking one’s seat has always been considered an
indication of good or bad breeding, even from ancient times. A well-educated
person will take his seat carefully, without crossing the feet.

THE SALUTATION

People salute each other in different ways. A haughty man will
never bow first, and when answering he hardly touches his hat. A poor or modest
man bows low. A beggar takes off his hat, full of timidity, extending his hand
to receive the gift. 

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1. The first name given to Brazil by the colonialists was “Terra do Santa Cruz” – “land of the Holy Cross.”
2. In terms of population, Brazil takes the 5th place.
3. Brazil prepares the most delicious coffee drinks.
4. The largest and richest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo.
5. There is no official religion in this country.
6. In Brazil, in each apartment, there are about 3 bathrooms
7. the capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built in just 41 days.
8. Brazil has the most brutal police.
9. No one arrives on time in Brazil.
10. Approximately 1.5 million Japanese lives in Brazil, it is the largest number of people outside Japan.
11. In Brazil, about 15% of the population cannot read and write.
12. Women in Brazil got voting rights in 1946.
13. Brazil was the first country in South America to allow women in armed forces.
14. Brazil holds the 60% of total Amazon Rainforest.
15. There are 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil.
16. Brazil is considered the largest producer of apples.
17. Alone Brazil occupies half of South America’s total landmass.
18. When married, women in Brazil do not change names, but simply combine 2 names.
19. Portuguese ruled Brazil for more than 300 years.
20. The Brazilian national team has won FIFA World Cup 5 times.
21. Almost all cars in Brazil go on biofuel.
22. Brazilians are considered the most talkative people.
23. The national sport of Brazil is football, therefore in all cities of this state, there is at least 1 stadium.
24. Cocoa is considered to be the favorite drink of Brazilian people.
25. Cheese bread is considered a classic breakfast for all Brazilians.
26. In Brazil, there is the largest tropical forest.
27. At night, drivers in Brazil are allowed to ride when the traffic light is red.
28. In Brazil, the crime rate is very high.
29. Brazil has the largest number of species of plant, mammal and freshwater fish in the world.
30. Till 1961, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
31. In ancient times, Brazil was a colonial state.
32. There are about 4,000 airports in Brazil.
33. Traffic Jams in big cities of Brazil is so common and can reach up to waiting for 3-4 hours.
34. Brazilian speak the Portuguese language.
35. In total, about 6% of the country’s population live in slums.
36. The largest stadium in Brazil is Maracana, it has the capacity of more than 78,000 thousand people.
37. Brazil is the member of UNESCO.
38. Here flows the largest river in the world – the Amazon.
39. Only Brazilian athletes participated in all world championships.
40. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee.
41. Baia do Sancho beach is considered to be the most beautiful beach in Brazil.
42. Every year in Brazil visits 6 million tourists.
43. Brazil carnival lasts for 4 days and it is declared a national holiday.
44. The national dish of Brazil is Feijoada.
45. In Sao Paulo outdoor advertising is ban.
46. Smoking in public is banned in Brazil, even E-cigarettes are banned.
47. Carnival in Rio De Janeiro is the biggest festival of the world.
48. Brazilians are an open and positive people. They like dancing, beer, and football.
49. São Vicente is the oldest city in Brazil.
50. the 40-meter-high statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro is in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
51. Only in Brazil, there is a law that allows you to reduce your prison sentence for reading books.
52. Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil.
53. In Brazil, 15% of the world’s fresh water is concentrated.
54. Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil.
55. There are three time zones in Brazil.
56. The life expectancy of Brazil is 75 years.
57. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country.
58. Bororo is the group of people in Brazil who all have the same blood group ‘O’.
59. There are approximately 4 million plants in Brazil.
60. Christmas is considered the main event in Brazil.

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1. Pick three (3) characters in the movie. Describe their roles and state how they impacted you as a viewer.

Ishaan Awasthi – He is the main actor he impacted me very much because it think of him as me to be honest I hate school I find every subject difficult I have been already told that my teachers belittled me
I also fail at most of my quizzes but when I found a teacher that helped me in high school.

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Ram Shankar Nikumbh – Art teacher he contaminates understudies with euphoria and positive thinking he affected me since he resembles my old educator who helped me he was tolerance with me he gave me inspiration to complete middle school he was additionally the person who influenced me to acknowledge what I am competent to do in my life.

Mr. and Mrs. Awasthi – Parents of Ishaan they taught he will never have good grades they impacted me because they were used to the same technique in teaching they never tried to adjust with ishaan it’s hard for them to accept the truth that ishaan is genius in other ways they were not used to the ways of ishaan’s geniuses

2. If you were to be part of the story, which character would you be so you can make a significant difference in the life of ‘Ishaan’?

I would be Nikumbh why he has an extraordinary enthusiasm with childrens with exceptional needs additionally he found an answer for ishaan’s concern he helped him enhance his craft abilities likewise Nikumbh made ishaan’s folks understood that he isn’t languid or miserable he additionally said that ishaan should be dealt with well and
acknowledged to them.

3. Identify an issue/problem that is predominantly brought up in the film.

There 3 problems in that movie

First one is family issues – there wrong in the style of parenting of ishaan’s parents and it affected him. his father he never have enough time with ishaan he can’t guide him he always punish ishaan when he gets into troubles well in fact he never asked what happened why did he do that. They never did understand ishaan they never cared for his condition until nikumbh made them realize of ishaan’s condition

Second one is child labor – nikumbh saw a little kid working and he specified that “Putting your aspiration to the kid is more regrettable than kid work”
Third one is the Education system – The way they educate their understudies humiliating the understudy before the class giving disciplines and beating them since they didn’t comprehend the lessons it doesn’t help with their orders likewise they were simply bringing down confidence of the understudy the terrible words they tell the understudies the fantasies they were demolishing only to study.

4. Support the claim: “EVERY CHILD IS SPECIAL

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