1. HRD and Training
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the system that can be utilized by a company in aiding its employees to improve both their personal and institutional capabilities and knowledge (DeSimone & Werner, 2012). This system goes a long way in the inspiration of employees hence maintaining them in the company. HRD can be done formally where a group of the employees, for instance, the Shop Managers of the newer shops can be assembled in one hotel room, or even in a boardroom in the company’s premises and a well-experienced trainer, who could be a more experienced manager of one of the older shops, can train them on all matters pertaining the shops. It could also be done informally by way of a Shop Manager of an older shop training the Shop Manager of a new shop in his/her office.
There are several strategies that can be employed in HRD. Training of staff by either senior members of the company or more experienced colleagues can be done. Career development can be employed, where the employees’ personal interests and organizationally expected occurrences are taken care of (Balakrishnan & Srividhya, 2007). It is done, for instance, by training the assistant managers in the current shops (both older and newer) for their expected role as Shop Managers when new shops are opened. Another strategy that can be employed is tuition assistance where employees willing to go and further their studies in order to be qualified for more senior jobs, as has been noted in general consensus that the newer shops have underqualified and ill-prepared managers. Organizational development can be employed as a strategy, where organization-wide interventions are put in place, in all the shops, to increase positive output in the organization, and get the best out of its employees. It can be done in a way as training employees on customer service to address the significant number and frequency of customer complaints, especially in the newer shops.
Training is done in perspective of what position the employee holds, and its effectiveness evaluated upon it. This continuous training aims at improving an employee’s skills and knowledge on the position he/she is in. Training has quite a number of benefits including increasing the overall organization’s productivity, reducing chances of an employee doing a wrong action, and improving an employee’s spirit and self-confidence leading to them working under less supervision (Mesics, 1960). In Discounts 2 U, training can go a long way in making the Shop Managers of the new shops more effective, opening up career advancement opportunities for the Value Partners in the shops opened after 2010, and uplifting the attitude of the employees in the new shops.
2. Coaching/ Mentoring
Coaching, as a form of development, can be defined as a situation where a person (coach) bolsters another person to achieve a professional, personal or organizational goal. Usually, the coach is a more experienced person in the same field, and with greater expertise and knowledge on the targeted task (Garvey, Stokes, ; Megginson, 2018). The coaches can also be from outside the organization. Discounts 2 U can make use of more experienced Shop Managers as coaches, and can also employ an organizational psychologist to be an executive coach in the organization, in addition to making use of external coaches. Coaching aims at improving an employee’s interpersonal relations (which can lead to better customer relations), strategic thinking on various matters and situations, and knowledge on dealing with conflict in case it arises.
Benefits come with coaching. The employee’s morale automatically goes up together with the attitude towards the company, aiding to retain talent. Inter-personal relations are well uplifted since coaching is a personalized form of development, with the coach interacting directly and personally with the employee. The employee’s teamwork skills are therefore improved. Coaching also helps to increase both levels of performance and job satisfaction, hence can be used on the Shop Managers of the new shops to improve their performance, and on the Value Partners and Assistant Managers to boost their performance levels to high standards and to bring about pride in their jobs.
Mentoring is a network where a more knowledgeable or more skilful person assists a less knowledgeable or skilful person to gain skills and knowledge needed in his/her line of work, or for personal, professional or organizational growth. Mentoring is different from coaching in various respects. It is long-term compared to coaching which is short-term and task-based. Mentors become a sort of ‘role model’ and is trusted very much by the mentee. Mentorship entails informal communication for a sustained period of time (Herholdt, 2012).
The preponderance of mentoring is markedly significant. The advice that the mentee gets from a mentor, together with suggestions and answers to the mentee’s questions go a long way in maintaining the mentee highly relevant and effective in the business world. Mentors also give critical perspectives to deal with certain cases, which have not been thought before, owing to their vast experience. Long-term skills are also acquired from the mentors, with long-term relationships being created. Mentorship can go a long way to revitalize operations and output in Discount 2 U Retailers.
3. Culture
Culture is defined as those arts, customs, lifestyles, background, and propensities that describe a specific group of people, social order or country. Organizational culture alludes all the of the structure from claiming imparted beliefs, presumptions and qualities which oversee how individuals behave in an organization, influencing how kin dress, how they act, how they perform their jobs, business hours, office setup, representative benefits, turnover, hiring decisions, customer fulfilment and each other part about operations. It contributes to the interesting social and mental status in an organization (Schwartz, Davis ; American Management Association, 1991).
From the case study, it is concluded that there is a significant cultural difference between the employees in the older shops and those in the newer shops. This difference is because of a number of factors including the difference in the management of the shops, poor execution, change in the market the company serves and possibly changing customer requirements. As Discounts 2 U continues to expand, its geographical coverage diversifies. The cultural difference is evidenced by the negative attitude and behaviour witnessed in newer shops, the general disorganization in the newer shops in terms of cleanliness and appearance, and the prevalent lack of pride in work done and hence lower performance in the newer shops.
A number of solutions can be applied to settle these cultural differences and improve performance. Leadership development can be done to help the managers and those in authority to execute their leadership roles optimally. After those administrators have assessed the circumstances and have agreed that upgrades are necessary, they examine which transforms will improve or expand benefits. They, at that point, create a correspondence arrangement to clarify the recommended change activities to their staff. Punctual and more compelling correspondence serves should get additional workers to help execute those changes, and additionally address whatever apprehensions or protests that may arise. The last and most important step is to ingrain the culture change in the management objectives, making it real and making it stick onto all the employees (Films Media Group,, ; Teletime Video, Inc.,2016).

As the human resource director, I have always believed that Discounts 2 U is a world-class retail organization, whose productivity can be escalated from where currently stands. It had been founded in 1991 to be a leading organization in retailing of products to consumers at highly discounted prices. The discount gives customers good value for their money. With its currently expansive and extensive status, Discounts 2 U faces quite some challenges, especially in its newer shops. On keen observation, I have noted that the environment in the newer shops has changed significantly from what I have met in the older shops and what I had been used to. All is not lost. Therefore, a collective action is necessary to revamp operations in the new shops.

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As a mechanical engineer student , one should be able to use the skills and knowledge obtained from the design process .This is achieved by doing research and developing new ideas .We have been given an opportunity to design a manual wheelchair.

In South Africa there are so many people who are unable to walk and this situation may have resulted from injuries or diseases . In this case possible solutions were made in the past to better the lives of those who cannot walk by developing a mechanical machine called a manual wheelchair .However , there is still something missing in a wheelchair .People need a wheelchair with effective brakes , one which allow them to brake in a short period of time to avoid any injuries. The design needs to be able to satisfy the needs of everyone who is in need of it.

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The design will be based on the strength of the material and the cost of the product is put into consideration so the product has to be affordable . This will give anyone who is in need of it to have quick access and buy without thinking twice.

Disabled people find it very difficult to use the manual wheelchairs that have been designed because of the brakes . The brakes are essential to be part of the wheelchair .They enable the user to move into and from the wheelchair without falling .The brakes that are needed need to be effective at all times irrespective of the environment .It must accommodate inclined planes ,rough surfaces and also smooth surfaces.

The research project was on the locks of the manual wheelchair .Then a couple of types of locks were put into consideration namely :
1.Pull/push lever.

2.Scissor locks.

3.Wheellock extension.

4.Hub locks.

The most commonly used locks in a manual wheelchair is pull/push lock .It is very simple to use it . It works by pulling the lever backwards or by pushing forward the lever until the bar presses the is on the tyres . And it accommodates everyone who is in need of it because it is simple to use and it is not complicated.

They are called the scissor locks because they are in a form of a scissor and they are designed for people who have been using wheelchair for a long period of time.It does not favour people who have just started wheelchairs now.

This type of a lock needs an additional length to lock the lever by so doing it helps the user to reach the lock without struggling . The user can lock and unlock without having to worry about anything .There is a problem with this type of a lock because the way it operates is very fast and can cause injuries to the user of the wheelchair.

It locks the wheelchair through the wheel hub instead of the tyre.

-The pull/push lock is my best option for my design it is reasonable and everyone will be able to enjoy using the product.

-The large rear wheels are made of aluminum.

-The lightest chairs have fixed arms that allow the user to move into and from the wheelchair if the user is unable to stand for a long period of time.

-The hand rims are mettalic ,having a circular steel tube and are attached to the driving wheels of the wheelchair to allow control without making the hands dirty.

-The rims are coated,this will help users with problems in gripping on a smooth surface.

-The lever ensures that the wheelchair does not roll down when it is in an inclined plane and the user can move into anfd from the wheelchair without slipping.

-The pneumatic tyres are used to provide shock and are more suitable to rough surfaces.

-Caster wheels have a solid rubber and they are durable.

– The seat are flexible and have rigid cushions.

-The pressure is stable and it provide comfort to the user of the wheelchair.

– The heel loops are constructed of by a cloth.

-The foot plates are made of an aluminum underneath and on top is covered by a solid rubber.They are removable and can be adjusted from the wheelchair and also helps in transferring into and out of the wheelchair.

After doing some research it was found that many people people prefer a wheelchair that has the following:
1.Weight – the wheelchair must be able to carry a weight of 150 KG .2.Height – is 60 inches.

3.Seat width – 32 inches.

4.Seat length – 40 inches
5.Depth – 28 inches.

6.Safety– the product is 100% accurate it will not collapse on the way of using it, it is garantteed.

7.Cost – the product has a reasonable price this ensures that everyone who is in need of a wheelchair will be able to buy it .Plus the wheelchair has a good quality.

8.The size of the locks – it is 7 inches.

9. Diameter of the large rear wheels – 27 inches.

10.Diameter of the hand rims – 23 inches.

Inches cm M
Length 40 101.6 1.016
Width 32 81.28 0.813
Mass =150 kg
The force applied on the wheelchair will be equal to the force of gravity. Therefore :F = mg where m = 150kg and g = 9.8 m/s squared
=1470 N
Area = length * width
=1.016 * 0.813
=0.83 metres squared
Stress = F/A
= 1470/0.83
= 1780 N/m squared
This is a proof that the wheelchair will be able to carry this weight without collapsing.

These specifications and stress analysis are perfect for the design because they meet all the requirements of the design and the requirements were met .Indeed the design has a good quality ,in good condition,and everyone will be able to buy.

– After considering a quite number of types of locks so for the scissor lock it’s actually a good option to use it as the brakes of the wheelchair . But this option becomes handy to those who are not used to using the wheelchair .- For the wheel extensions it is also a great option to use it as a lock and it will also help those who are short because they have short arms to reach the brakes .The additional length of the brakes will definitely help those kinds of people.

But the wheel extensions have a disadvantage and it is not a good idea for disabled people to use it .These types of locks works very fast and it needs a person who is energetic and it is very rare to find people who are using a wheelchair being in a great condition .

Another thing is that since the process works very fast a lot of users have complained about it because it hurts their hands.

-For the push/pull lock , this one is the most common type of a lock and many people prefer it than other locks .It has no disadvantages and that is the reason why it is preferred by a lot of users of the wheelchair .For the reasons mentioned above about pull/pusk locks it is the one that was choosen as the best lock of the wheelchair.

The final wheelchair design consists of the pull/push locks
1.Clifford E.Brubaker(1989),Wheelchair IV , Report of a conference on the state-of-the-art of powered wheelchair Mobility,December 7-9,1988,KESNA press.MTILENI EVA BASANI

1. In the immediate vicinity of the arenas, where the battles of “going to the death” took place, there were always trade tents. There, for quite large for those times money, you could get a drug that replaced the inhabitants of Rome with cosmetics – sweat of gladiators, as well as animal fat. Such an unusual set helped to eliminate wrinkles. 2. Ancient Rome was held in ancient Rome, dedicated to the god Saturn. From other celebrations, he was different in that these days the slaves had the illusion of freedom. They could sit at the same table with their master. It used to happen that even the owner cooked dinner for his slaves. 3. The poets and writers of the “Eternal City” did not give rest to the Emperor Claudius. Therefore they did not miss an opportunity not to make fun of it publicly. The fact is that Claudius always preferred exclusively women and was not seen in relationships with men. At that time it was believed that those who have connections only with the fair sex, he becomes like a woman. 4. Everyone knows that the inhabitants of ancient Rome loved bloody spectacles. But very few people know that the tradition to take the lives of others in the gladiatorial arenas safely migrated to the theatrical stage. Therefore, if according to the scenario the hero should have perished, then he was necessarily killed. Thus, for some actors, the first role became the last. 5. The attitude towards medicine was the most serious. Ancient Aesculapius usually did not forgive mistakes. For example, if during the operation the patient died, the doctor was immediately cut off. 6. Rich Romans lived in large and luxurious mansions. Those wishing to get inside had to knock: either with a special ring or with a wooden beater. Some of the most well-to-do Romans in the yard of the house were slaves on the chain. They replaced the dogs and the “bell”, warning the host about their guests with their cries. 7. In ancient Rome, rich residents instead of napkins and towels during the feast, wiped their hands on the heads of curly children. By the way, they were called “table boys”. Such a “service” was considered very honorable. 8. The Roman Emperor Claudius had a wife named Messalina. Even completely unencumbered by her compatriots, she struck with lust and debauchery. According to the stories of the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Messalina had even her own brothel. “The First Lady” not only paid for the maintenance costs, but sometimes she served everyone. Once Messalina even arranged a match with another love priestess to find out which of them will serve more clients in the same time. The Emperor’s wife won with a twofold advantage: fifty against twenty-five. 9 . As you know, the occupation of prostitution in ancient Rome was considered an occupation completely normal and legal. Therefore, the priestesses of love did not need to hide their status. Moreover, they did their best to stand out from the crowd. So, for example, only prostitutes could walk around the city in shoes with high heels, which immediately attracted attention. 10. By the way, the spell “abracadabra”, familiar from childhood, came from Rome. It appears in the works of the personal doctor of the Emperor Caracalla, Seren Sammonik. To get rid of any disease or drive away evil spirits, this phrase should be written on the amulet in a column eleven times. 11. In the Roman army there was a special type of execution, which was called decimation (penalty of the tenth). Its meaning was as follows: the guilty squad broke into dozens and each of the soldiers pulled lots. The one who pulled the unfortunate, died at the hands of nine colleagues. 12. It is interesting that, according to tradition, personal names relied only on the first four sons in the family. If they were still, they were called ordinal numbers. For example, Quintus – the fifth or Sextus – the sixth. Over time, these names have become common. 13. During the fighting against a state or tribe, the Romans often resorted to a kind of ritual called “evocation”. Simply put, the soldiers turned to the enemy’s gods and asked them to cross over to the side of Rome. In return, they were promised to worship and respect in every possible way. 14. On the first day of the opening of the Coliseum, about five thousand animals perished on its sands, and fewer people. By the way, according to the estimates of the researchers, more than a hundred gladiators have left their lives on the arena every month. 15. In the Roman Empire, special attention was paid to transport communications. At the time of the state’s death, many roads stretched its territory, the total length of which exceeded fifty-four thousand kilometers.


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