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1.1 INTRODUCTION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
As the term implies, natural products are those chemical compounds which are derived from living organisms including plants, animals, insects, and microorganisms, while the research on natural products includes the investigation of their structures, formation, uses and purpose in the organism. Compounds which occurred naturally may be classified into three categories.
Primary metabolites- the compounds which occurred in all cells and it plays a central role in metabolism and reproduction of those cells.

Secondary metabolites-They are high molecular weight polymeric materials. Most of the primary metabolites make use of their biological effects within the cell or organism that is responsible for their production.

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Chemotaxonomy- Chemotaxonomy provides another reason for examining the constituents of plants.
Phytochemical survey can reveal natural products that are “markers” for botanical and evolutionary relationships (10).

A brief account of type of the phytochemicals distributed in plant flora is given below:
Phenolic compounds (11) are plant metabolites, which was widely distributed in plant kingdom. It is also identified as polyphenols which is found in fruits of some plants, they were naturally occurring coloured pigments and it is also responsible for the colour of fruits .

Flavonoids (12) are important group of polyphenols, widely distributed in plant flora 4,000 flavonoids are known to exist and some of them are pigments in higher plants. Quercetin, kaempferol and quercitrin are common. Soya flavones have recently gained importance due to variety of pharmacological activities.
Acylphloroglucinols (13) are group of phenolic compounds having significant antidepressant activity.
Alkaloids (14) are basically nitrogen containing bases and the most important class of phytochemicals. The amino acids act as building blocks for the biosynthesis of alkaloids. More than 10,000 different alkaloids have been discovered in species from over 300 plant families.
First identified in 1820s, coumarin (15) is an oxygen heterocycle that is famous for its vanilla-like or freshly-mowed hay fragrance. Coumarin is a chemical compound (benzopyrone); a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, vanilla grass, woodruff, mullein, and bison grass. Coumarin and its derivatives are principal oral anticoagulants.
Coumarins are competitive inhibitors of vitamin K in the biosynthesis of prothrombin (16).
Furanocoumarins (17) are photosensitizing agents used in the treatment of pigment disorders. Ayurveda, the ancient science of India, has described the use of bawachi (Psoralia corylifolia) for the treatment of leucoderma.
Furochromones (18) are group of coumarins, derived from benzopyrone. They are related to furano coumarins. Hydroxycoumarins represent another group of coumarins.

Glycosides are water-soluble constituents, found in the cell sap. They are colourless, crystalline substanes containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Some glycosides are peculiar in having nitrogen and sulphur.
The glucosinolates (19) are a class of organic compounds that contain sulfur and nitrogen and are derived from glucose and an amino acid. Glucosinolates are water-soluble anions and belong to the glucosides. About 120 different glucosinolates are known to occur naturally in plants. They are synthesized from certain amino acids.

Resins (20) are brittle, non-volatile, solid substances. Oleoresins are natural products of resin mixed with volatile oils. Gum-resins are plant exudates and are mixtures of gum and resin and often volatile oils. Balsams are combinations of resins or oleoresins with aromatic acids.
Saponins (21) are glycosides found in number of plants. they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foaming they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, and structurally by their being composed of one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene derivative Some are poisonous.
Terpenoids (22) may be defined as a group of molecules whose structure is based on a various but definite number of isoprene units (methylbuta-1,3-diene, named hemiterpene, with 5 carbon atoms). Terpenoids are extraordinarily diverse but they all originate through the condensation of the universal phosphorylated derivative of hemiterpene, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) giving geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). Plant terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities. They play a role in traditional herbal remedies.Sesquiterpene lactones constitute significant group of phytochemicals. They are formed by condensation of three isoprene molecules followed by oxidation.
Sterols (23) are derivatives of steroids. Modern clinical studies have supported their role as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Sterols are also known as steroid alcohols. They are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group at the 3-position of the A-ring. They are amphipathic lipids synthesized from acetyl-coenzyme A via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway.
Tannins (24) are astringent, bitter plant polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or shrink proteins. They are phenolic compounds of high molecular weight. Tannins are widely distributed in plant flora. Tannins have shown potential antiviral (25), antibacterial (26) and antiparasitic effects (27). In the past few years tannins have also been studied for their potential effects against cancer through different mechanisms.

1.2. FAMILY RUBIACEAE
Family Rubiaceae (28) is cosmopolitan in distribution. This plant family comprises 630 genera and 1300 species. In India, it comprises about 74 genera and 450 species. It is available almost worldwide though it is most rich in the tropical regions of both hemispheres. Coffee (Coffea), quinine (Cinchona), madder (Rubia), ipecac (Carapichea Aublet) and various horticultural plants, notably Gardenia, Ixora, Mussaenda, and Pentas. Several genera include pantropical weeds, notably Mitracarpus, Richardia, and Spermacoae, of neotropical origin, and Oldenlandia (Hedyotis) were the important members of the family.

1.2.1 IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY RUBIACEAE
The chemical constituents of Rubiaceae species used as timber, ornamental purposes ,etc., The species of this family is used for their high -quality timber (e.g., Nauclea diderichii) ,ornamentals (Ixora, Gardenia). Additionally they have medicinal value as well.

The root extract (Mussaenda frondosa) was used for blemishes on the tongue, sepals for diuretic. (ref) The fruit extract of the Randia echinocarpa was used for the treatment of kidney ailments. Various species of this family were used,such as abortifacient, cancer of the stomach and small intestine, circulatory problems, coughs, diabetes, diarrhoea, injuries and wounds happened by accidents,diuretic,etc.,
Rubiaceae species have been a treasured supply of latest secondary metabolites for scientific functions. Plant drugs, consequently, retain to represent an important a part of the medicines, especially the areas of present day medicine and additionally in conventional scientific structures like in our conventional ayurveda, siddha and Unani as an immunomodulator. But the potential use of higher vegetation as a source of recent pills remains poorly explored of the anticipated 2,50,000-5,00,000 plant species, only a small percentage has been investigated phytochemically and even a smaller percentage has no longer been well studied in phrases of their pharmacological houses. In maximum cases, best pharmacological screening or preliminary research were performed and it is also predicted that only 8000 species had been studied for medicinal use82.

Phytochemical analysis discovered the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, sanranetin-4-o-glycoside fatty chain acids and cardiac glycosides within the extracts of the Rubiaceae circle of relative species83.In conventional medication, Rubiaceae species are used as an antioxidant84-86,anticancer87,88,89,90,antimicrobial91,92,antidiabetic93,antiinflammatory94,hypocholesteromic95,woundhealing96,antimalarial97,antipyretic and analgesic98-100etc.,
1.3.1 GENUS RANDIA
Randia is a large genus contains more than 100 species in the coffee or bedstraw family (Rubiaceae).The genus include small trees, trunk with short simple, branched thorns, young branchlets. It is present in peninsular India and SriLanka. The leaves are simple, opposite, lamina 3.5-7.5 x1.3-3. The flowers were inflorescence umbel, white-cream with 0.5cm long.

1.3.2 GENUS TARENNATarenna is a large evergreen shrub which belongs to Ixora family (Rubiaceae), the genus of about 370 species which was distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Madagascar. The flowers are short, creamy white,fragrant. The leaves are simple, broad length with a width 3.2-9.x2.3-5.

1.4 BENKARA MALABARICA (LAM.) TIRVENG.

Benkara malabarica is an erect woody, gray, velvety and shrubby plant. Medicinally it is very important plant.

Synonym Randia malabarica Lam.

Kingdom PlantaePhylum TracheophytaClass MagnoliopsidaFamily Rubiaceae
Genus BenkaraVERNACULAR NAMES
Malayalam ben-karaTamil PudanTelugu Pedalli
1.4.1 DISTRIBUTION
Peninsular India and Sri Lanka; throughout-western ghats.

1.4.2 HABIT
Small trees; Trunk with short straight forward or branched thorns; bark gray, lenticellate; blaze yellow; Young branchlets subterete, glabrous. Leaves straightforward, opposite, decussate; plant structure linear, interpetiolar, deciduous and exploit scar; stalk ca. 0.8 cm long, bulging in cross section, glabrous; plate three.5-7.5 x 1.3-3, obovate, apex obtuse to shortly acuminate with blunt tip, base attenuate, margin entire, coriaceous, hairless beneath; midvein raised above; secondary nerves ca. 6 pairs, domatia gift at axils; tertiary nerves obscure.Inflorescence like corymbs, axillary; flowers white-cream; pedicle ca. 0.5 cm long. Berry, globos, with crown of persistent gyre lobes; seeds several.

1.5.1 TARENNA ASIATICA (L.)KUNTZE EX K.SCHUM
The plant is used to treat skin diseases, in wound pain,etc.,
Synonym Canthium corymbosum (Willd.) Pers.

Kingdom PlantaePhylum TracheophytaClass MagnoliopsidaFamily Rubiaceae
Genus Tarenna1.5.2. VERNACULAR NAMES
Malayalam kuppipoovuTamil TharaniOthers Tharani,Thaerani
1.5.3 DISTRIBUTION
Indo-Malaysia , Kerala, All Districts in Tamil Nadu
1.5.4 HABIT
In terminal inflorescence cymes, 3-chotomous; cream, fragrant. Flowering from December-April. Fruit-a circular berry, with a crown of curl lobes, dark brown once dry. mature throughout the year. Field tips-leaves dark shiny inexperienced on top of, uninteresting at a lower place; leaf arrangement-opposite-decussate; Leaf type-Simple; leaf shape-oblong-oblanceolate; Leaf Apex-Acute; Leaf Base-Truncate; Leaf margin entire.

1.6 ANTIMICROBIALS

Antimicrobials (53) are chemicals that kill microbes. Antimicrobial is the name for a chemical that either kills or prevents the growth of microbes (‘bugs’ or ‘germs’) such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa. Some antimicrobials are produced by bugs themselves (e.g. penicillin is produced by the penicillium mould), others are designed in the laboratory. Different bugs are susceptible to different antimicrobials e.g. the penicillium mould is not killed by the penicillin it produces, but some bacteria are susceptible to penicillin. Antiviral are drugs that kill or prevent the growth of viruses. Viral infections are much harder to treat than bacterial infections because viruses live inside our cells, making it harder for the immune system to see them and attack them .
A large number of human, animal and plant disease are caused by pathogenic microbes (fungi bacteria and algae). Infections due to fungi and bacteria have been a major cause of death in higher organisms. The discovery of antibiotic penicillin by Fleming is therefore considered to be one of the most important discoveries in the world. Historically many of the new antibiotics were isolated from natural sources (soil microbes, plants etc). Many more were later synthesized and introduced in clinical practices. Several antibiotics, which have been found to be clinically effective as antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal agents are found to inhibit carcinomas in experimental animals and are used as antitumor agents for the control of malignant diseases. However the toxic side effects of bone marrow changes, kidney and liver damage have precluded extensive therapeutic applications of these agents for cancer treatment.
Unfortunately human struggle against pathogenic microbes is far from over due to many reasons. Most important of them time to time discovery of new pathogens, remarkable abilities of microbes to develop resistance against used antibiotic. The discovery and development of new antimicrobial agent is therefore a going process. Remarkable diversity of chemicals present in biological samples has tremendous potential in search of new antimicrobial agents.
There is no single all embracing bioassay to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a sample. Therefore, the evaluation process generally involves the use of a number of bioassay methods and careful comparison of all the data in order to arrive at an appropriate conclusion (54).
There are three major methods for antimicrobial testing:
(a) Agar diffusion method.
(b) Agar dilution method.
(c) Bioautographic method.
In the agar diffusion method, wells are cut in seeded agar and the sample is then introduced directly into these wells. After incubation the diameter of the clear zone around the well is measured and compared against zones of inhibition produced by the solutions of known concentrations of standard antibiotics. In samples where the presence of suspended particle matter (or precipitation of water insoluble substances on the disc or cylinder) interferes with the diffusion of the antimicrobial substance, warming on a hot plate may be advantageous. Five or six samples may be tested simultaneously by the diffusion method.
In the agar dilution method, the medium is inoculated with the test organism and the samples to be tested are mixed with the inoculated medium. The material is inoculated and the growth of the microorganisms is viewed and compared with a control culture which does not contain the test sample. The experiment is repeated at various dilutions of the test sample in the culture medium and the highest dilution at which the sample just prevents the growth of microorganism (MIC) is determined.
The bioautographic procedure for screening for antimicrobial activity involves localizing the antibacterial activity on a chromatogram. The antimicrobial agent is transferred from the TLC plate or paper chromatogram to an inoculated agar plate by diffusion and zones of inhibition visualized.
Spoilage of foods due to the presence of bacterial and fungal infection has been a major concern for decades and it causes a considerable loss world wide. The demand for non toxic, natural preservatives has been rising with increased awareness and reports of ill effects of synthetic chemicals present in foods. Further more emergence of food borne pathogens has lately become a major public health concern. Many compounds present in the plants have been reported to be biologically active, antimicrobial, allopathic, antioxidants and have bio regulatory properties. There is a need to discover new antimicrobial compounds in view of many plant and human microbial diseases.

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1. The name ‘Alaska’ is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
3. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
5. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air
6. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
10. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
14. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
15. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
20. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
28. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
29. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.
30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
31. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
33. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
35. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.
38. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
40. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.
41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
43. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
46. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
53. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.
55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
56. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
57. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
60. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

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1. Performance management is the operation of evaluation of advancement, of an administration, towards a preferable goal. It is the measurement, research and optimization of resources to furnish a service to a level that has been agreed upon It concentrates on the delivery of service. “Organizations can achieve their goals and objectives only through the combined efforts of their employees and it is the task of management to get work done. Employee performance management is fundamental to the effective operation of organizations. Performance management is an integral part of the employees and organizations relationship. It is essentially an integrating activity that permeates every fact of the operations of an or-ganization” (Laurir J. Mullines, Management and Organizational behaviour 2007, 410.)
The basic idea behind performance management is a operation through which the management connects the individuals, systems and strategies, to increase both effectiveness and efficiency to be able to turn in the coveted effects. Simply put, the affirmation means, doing the right things and doing the things correctly. That is, an industrious establishment must include one scheme that contains leaders, and the other that insists on reaching excellent.
Performance management is very important to both employers and em-ployees. From the employers prospective, it is vital to understand how your employees contribute to the objectives of the organization. A good performance management system enables the organization to understand how its employees are currently performing. It allows organizations to undertake a thorough assessment of the training needs of its employees, set development plans and gives them the option of using the result of the performance management process to influence an individual remuneration.
From the employees prospective, the performance management process provides transparency over performance at workplace and can be used to assess future career development requirements
An efficient performance management in an organization can reach leaders skills that can be elevated aboard attitudes, interpersonal attainments and behaviors. This is a fundamental aspect of managing performance as it assists in holding and holding individuals who embody the basic human capital of the establishments. as they are the ones responsible for the implementation of the principal designs of the business concerns.

To increase the potential of an establishment, in order to achieve its strategy, it is principal that the organization grows and produces the potentialities of its employees. Effective people management is the only key to improve the businesses operation.
The most critical function of Performance Management is to grow the potency of the employees. This should be done, in order to improve the execution of the business concerns.
Managing Performance is linked up with paperwork, tricky conversations and bureaucracy, and is hence often put aside as a job no one wishes to do. Performance Management is a operation that affects people and directors, that use the procedure on a regular basis , to increase their strength towards the employer’s organisation.
2. What’s the secret to achieving greater organizational success? Strong Performance Management—the processes you put in place to measure and reward the abilities of your workforce to meet and exceed goals.
Improving morale, creating loyalty and increasing overall productivity in your employees through performance management is the key to your company outperforming the competition. An effective performance management system is at its best when it establishes a true pay-for-performance culture which, in turn, develops employee engagement. The process for linking a company’s compensation plan to individual or team performance includes setting, measuring and rewarding achievable performance expectations.
Here are the features and components your performance management software must have:
• Defining Goals-The first step in performance management is setting the stage correctly—defining individual goals and aligning them with the corporate strategy. The process of setting goals should be a collaborative process between a manager and his or her employees
• Learning and Development. Once goals are set, employees need to have the knowledge and skills to do the work. Companies that want high performance need to make investments in employee learning and development. It will allow employees to accomplish their goals – both now and in the future.
• Engagement Surveys- Conducting engagement surveys in your company is an effective way to gain an insight into what matters most to your employees. As the name suggests, the primary reason for carrying out engagement surveys is to uncover if your employees are engaged or disengaged
• Feedback and Coaching. Employees want to know how they are performing. Because they want to do a good job. Managers should regularly tell employees about their performance – what’s good, what could be improved, and even more importantly, how to evaluate their own work. When employees can evaluate their own performance well, they can set their own goals and begin to become self-learners.

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3.How performance management can affect staff motivation?
In relation to individual employees, performance management is a key aspect of being managed well. For employees, among other things , effective performance management leads to clarity about their role and the expectations the organization has of them and where that role fits and contributes to the organisation. Performance management helps build a positive relationship with their manager, ensures they get feedback on how they are performing and highlights learning and development needs. All of this contributes to an employee who is more likely to be motivated, engaged, productive and committed to the company.
4.Reward
Reward is a broad concept and one in which there has been a lot of change in recent years. Traditionally, reward is thought of as pay and other contractual- type benefits such as holidays, sick pay and pensions, the aim of these being to attract, motivate and retain employees. For very many people reward is one of the most important aspects of working life. “The reward system in an organization is about rewarding people fairly and consistently for their individual contribution and value to the organisation and for their skill and performance. A good reward system will ensure that individual employees’ efforts are directed to those activities tht will help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives” ( domki strona 163)
5. In a fast-moving economy, successful businesses take an approach to people management that ensures their organisation is fully stocked with the best talent: that is, those employees who are willing to put their all in to support their employer and contribute to the success of the business.
Reward can be used as a conduit to signal to employees what the organisation is trying to achieve and what it needs from staff in terms of performance, skills, values and attitudes. Charles Cotton, performance and reward adviser at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), says: “Also, how it will reward and recognise employees who demonstrate those performances, behaviours and skills that are required by the organisation to be successful.”
6.
Organizations need to be efficient in doing right things, in the optimum use of their resources and in the ratio of out puts to inputs. But organisations must also be effective in doing the right things and in their out puts related to some specific purpose, objectives. Performance should be relat-ed to such factors as increasing profitability, improved the results in important areas of organizational activities. Innovation as the key to long term success and what leaders of best practice organizations do that is different. They :
• ensure they have vision, mission and organizational strategy that are known and understood;
• oversee the setting of demanding but realistic targets;
• set examples in the generating an open, communicative manage-ment style;
• champion a culture conductive to learning and continuous improvement;
• distribute leadership responsibilities with the necessary authority, training and resources .

7. It is your responsibility to collect performance data from a variety of sources in order to provide yourself with an objective picture of the extent to which each team member has met their performance goals and displayed the competencies expected of their role. There are a wide variety of options available to you as a manager for collecting data on the performance of each of your team members. These can be broadly categorized into four areas as shown in the points below.

• Goal progress
-regular reports
-timesheets

• Generic Data
-Attendance record
-Productivity reports
-Performance reports

• Competencies
-observed behaviours
– significant incidents

• Third party feedback
-Co-workers
– Customer reviews

These categories are not exclusive. For example, a ‘significant incident’ could demonstrate that a team member possessed a required competency as specified in the role description, but it could also have contributed to the attainment of a goal.
Making this data collection something that you do on an ongoing basis will increase your overall effectiveness for several reasons. Firstly, it will enable you to collate first-hand information about new developments, problems, and training needs, as well as any issues and concerns your team may have. Secondly, regular meetings with each of your team members provide you with the ideal opportunity to give clear and specific feedback regarding their performance. Finally, the data collection process encourages you to regularly engage with your team members, something which has a positive impact on their motivation and morale.
One of the greatest benefits you will achieve as part of this continual monitoring of your team’s performance is the ability to make better and more informed decisions as a result of using accurate and current data. This results in your decisions being more readily accepted and understood.
This is especially true for remuneration decisions, as they are based on factors that are fair, consistent, and tailored to individual performance. By providing a clear link between performance and remuneration, performance data allows remuneration decisions to be more transparent, equitable, and motivational. In contrast, this data also supports any disciplinary decisions you may need to make, since complete and objective performance data offers a robust defense against claims of wrongful dismissal.
8. Purpose and process of performance reviews.
“Performance appraisals, sometimes called performance reviews, are one of a number of performance management tools that aim to ensure employees’ performance contributes to business objectives, and should be used as part of a holistic approach to managing performance. The value of annual performance appraisals has increasingly been challenged in recent years in favour of more regular ‘performance conversations’. However, performance feedback or appraisal remains a crucial aspect of the performance management cycle”.- CIPD
This factsheet outlines the elements of performance appraisals, unpacking the role of line managers and the skills they require to carry out performance reviews. It looks at ways of measuring performance and the changing methods of gathering and giving feedback – a critical part of the performance discussion.
Traditionally most organizations recommend that performance appraisals be conducted every 6 to 12 months for employees. Interestingly, many employees report that their performance is evaluated much less frequently. In frequent performance appraisal are most often due to the manager’s negative view of the process. It can be stressful for both the employee and the manager, especially when employee performance has been below expectations. Thus, the manager may want to avoid this situation. In addition, the manager may view the performance appraisal process as extra work and. Thus, burden some. Regardless of the reasons, managers should encouraged (possible through training) to view the process as an opportunity to communicate with their employees and as a means to improve performance to develop employees.
Organisations use performance appraisals for evaluation and developmental purposes. A properly executed appraisal acts as a basis for hiring new employees, training and development of current employees, restructuring of workflow and employee motivation. Performance appraisals offer evidence for pay increases or for terminations. Well-designed performance appraisals can start dialogue between supervisors, direct reports and coworkers that may result in positive outcomes for the individuals and the business.
Performance evaluations can serve as effective tools for improving employee performance and productivity as well as determining employee developmental needs. Implemented properly, regular performance reviews can raise individual self-esteem and deepen the relationship between supervisor and subordinate. People often perform better when they have an idea how their supervisor views their work, knowledge and skill. They are more likely to initiate honest conversation regarding goals and job-related issues as well. A quality performance appraisal scheme has a set of clearly defined parameters. The documentation, whether electronic or written, includes ways to assess performance based on job-relevant skills and knowledge. Evaluations should not include assessment of employees’ personality of work style, but should include a review of communication techniques and behavior as it relates to interpersonal interaction.

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