• Provision of an environment to observe, view and monitor the surrounding area.
• Cleanliness on platform.
• Refreshment facilities.
• Waiting rooms.
• Drinking water arrangements.
• Vehicle parking facilities.
• Availability of other transportation modes.
• Overall satisfaction about the station.
To investigate the contribution of above mentioned facts on user satisfaction; therefor the questionnaire was designed with a suitable marking scheme. The questionnaire was designed as a self-administrated questionnaire. All the questions could be easily understanding and answer by the responders by them self.
There were no any marks given for question no: 01 to question no: 05. Marks for the responds that have been taken via a Likert scale for the question no: 06 to 19 was given as below.
Maximum of 100 marks were given to respond 5 which is showing maximum satisfaction and 0 marks were given to respond 1 which is showing minimum satisfaction level. Marks for the other responds have been given as below.
1 2 3 4 5
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
Percentage marks for the questions to test each responder’s satisfaction on other facilities are taken as x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, and x6 for each relevant railway station.
The sum of percentage marks for the questions to test each responder’s satisfaction on other facilities took as X. The average of the sum of the percentage marks for the questions to test each responder’s satisfaction on biophilic patterns took as Xavg.
The total marks for the question to test the responder’s satisfaction on overall station landscape took as Zavg for each railway station.
After that calculated the sum of the average marks from all the responders for the biophilic parameters are and took their average as A.
Sum of the average marks from all the responders for other facilities have been calculated and took their average as B.
Sum of the average marks from all the responders for overall satisfaction have been calculated and took their average as C.
After calculating A, B, and C values for each railway station; those A, B, C values has been marked on a scatter plot. Calculated values are annexed with “Appendix II”. A basic idea taken by observing the trending lines for each parameter on the graph on Figure 7.
According to the Figure 7 the trending line for Biophilic parameters displayed an approximate variation with trending line for Overall Satisfaction compared to the other factors. Due to the results of pilot study only the contribution of Using Biophilic Design principles is considered in the study.
3.2 Data collection and Data Analysis
3.2.1 Ella Railway Station
When considering about the sample of responders that interviewed; 65% of them were males and other 35% were females. And the ages of them distributed as shown in Figure 9.
Survey revealed that 70% of the responders are using Ella railway station a few times a year or occasionally. It implies that the majority of them are travelers. Other 30% can be consider as commuters according to the definitions.
70 % of responders choose to travel by train to enjoy the train ride. Only the 30% of them used the train just only as a transportation method.
60% of responders have come to Ella railway station expecting to visit railway station/railway track related destinations. More interviews with them revealed that most of them expect to hike along the railway track to watch nine arch bridge and Demodara Loop. 40% of responders have come to visit other places like their own houses, relation’s houses, Ella Rock, Ravana waterfalls, Ravana ancient temple, Dowa ancient temple and etc. which are situated around Ella area.
184.108.40.206 Overall satisfaction about the Station/ related landscape
Responder’s overall satisfaction about the Station / related landscape have been tested before test the satisfaction level on biophilic parameters separately. It was helpful to get a basic idea about the responder’s satisfaction level generally.
No of responses vs satisfaction levels plotted on an area graph. The graph on figure 13 seems to be the weight of the area graph is more distributed to right hand side. It implies that the overall satisfaction is distributed above the moderate level.
220.127.116.11 Visual Connection with Nature
Users can make a good visual connection with the nature from the platform of Ella Railway Station. Most adjacent landscape of the platform is utilized with a lawn and many decorative plants which does not blocking the views of the natural environment. Because of this openness, users can see the natural vegetation, mountains and unique characteristics of the area. Good natural connection with nature makes a satisfied feeling in users mind through calm down the mind, reducing stress level, making positive emotions and relaxing eye muscles.
User’s satisfaction level about the visual connection is surveyed through the question no 7 of the questionnaire.
No of responses vs satisfaction levels plotted on an area graph. The graph on figure 15 seems to be the weight of the area graph is more distributed to right hand side implying most of the responders are satisfied well about the visual connection with nature.
18.104.22.168 Non-visual Connection with Nature
This parameter connects the user with the nature by stimulating the senses other than visuals. This connection is formed by auditory, olfactory, heptic and gustatory stimulations.
Because of the high biodiversity of area people can hear the sounds of nature like bird singing, crickets, other animal’s sounds and sounds of the shacking leaves of the trees due to wind which makes a good non visual connection with nature.
Question no 8 of the questionnaire was designed to find out the responder’s satisfaction level about the non-visual connection.
No of responses vs satisfaction levels plotted on an area graph. The graph on figure 17 seems to be the weight of the area graph is more distributed to right hand side implying most of the responders are satisfied well about the non-visual connection with nature.
22.214.171.124 Presence of natural light
Natural light is also an important biophilic pattern to make connection with nature. When considering about Ella railway station it consist of only one platform. Railroad side is widely opened to environment. And only the middle area consist of a roof. Because of this openness the natural light spread better. Presence of natural light in a good level helpful to let the users to feel that they are connected with nature.
126.96.36.199 Connection with Natural Systems
188.8.131.52 Biomorphic Forms & Patterns / Material Connection with Nature
Seats that provided in Ella Station are made with wood which is a natural material and painted in green which is a natural color is stimulating a natural feeling in user.
When considering about the entrance of the station its front view is well merge with the natural landscape because of used colors, materials and textures. The texture of the front wall is giving an abstract feeling about natural rock textures. And the tile roof of the station also can be consider as biophilic due to its burnt clay material and its earth color.
Question no 11 of the questionnaire designed to test the responder’s satisfaction on two biophilic patterns together. Because preliminary interviews with people in pilot studies revealed that most of the people couldn’t understand the subtle difference between those two patterns without a huge explanation or a literature study. They take the contents of both patterns in to a one account.
Question 12 used to test the responder’s satisfaction about prospect. Figure 23 indicate the no of responds vs satisfaction level about prospect.
Figure 25 : No of responses vs satisfaction level about refuge
This is about the provision of a place where visitors can feel safe and protected from environmental changes. 10 people from all the 20 responders were highly satisfied about refuge and other 10 responses were also distributed above the mid-range.
184.108.40.206 Contribution of biophilic patterns on overall satisfaction
Overall01satisfaction00and0.satisfaction0.on0.several0.biophilic0.patterns00already surveyed. And calculated the average satisfaction level for biophilic patterns separately using collected data. Finally Responses for overall satisfaction, separate biophilic patterns and the average satisfaction for biophilic patterns plotted on a scatter graph for different responders and plotted their trend lines on the same graph using soft wares.
There is no much similarity between the trend line for overall satisfaction and trend lines for other surveyed biophilic patterns. But the trend line for average values of satisfaction levels for biophilic patterns that is calculated is having more approximately close variation with the trend line for overall satisfaction.
All the survey responses for Ella railway station are attached in Appendix IV.
3.2.2 Bandarawela Railway Station
When considering about the sample of responders that interviewed; 75% of them were males and other 25% were females. And the ages of them distributed as shown in Figure 28.
60% of the responders are using Bandarawela railway station a few times a year or occasionally. It implies that the majority of them are travelers. Other 40% can be consider as commuters according to the definitions.
220.127.116.11 Overall satisfaction about the Station/ related landscape
No of responses vs satisfaction levels plotted on an area graph. The graph on figure 31 seems to be the weight of the area graph is more distributed to right hand side. It implies that the overall satisfaction is distributed above the moderate level.
18.104.22.168 Visual Connection with Nature
The most nearest landscape of the Bandarawela station looks like a harsh environment. There was only small green vegetation on opposite side of the platform.